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Youth Violence—Risk factors—articles

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Animal Abuse and Youth Violence

added 09/24/2010
Frank R. Ascione

15-page Bulletin posted by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. This Bulletin describes psychiatric, psychological, and criminal research linking animal abuse to violence perpetrated by juveniles and adults. Particular attention is focused on the prevalence of cruelty to animals by children and adolescents and to the role of animal abuse as a possible symptom of conduct disorder. In addition, the motivations and etiology underlying the maltreatment of animals are thoroughly reviewed. The Bulletin includes recommendations to curb such cruelty, while providing contact information for additional resources concerned with violence perpetrated against animals and people.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Expert Panel on Protective Factors for Youth Violence Perpetration: Background and Overview (pdf)

added 02/20/2013
Hall, J.E. et al

The CDC Expert Panel on Protective Factors for Youth Violence Perpetration was convened to review and advance the status of etiologic and prevention research on direct protective and buffering protective factors for youth violence perpetration. The current paper introduces Phase One of the panel’s work, which focuses on direct protective factors and includes the papers in this supplement to the American Journal of Preventive Medicine. This paper provides the context for the panel’s work, describes its practical and theoretic importance, and summarizes why independently defined direct protective factors and risk factors are important for the advancement of our understanding of youth violence and its prevention

Characteristics of Juvenile Suicide in Confinement (pdf)

added 12/11/2009
Lindsay M. Hayes

"This bulletin provides the results of a survey on juvenile suicides occurring in confinement between 1995 and 1999. The study examined the demographic characteristics and social history of each victim, the characteristics of the incident, and the features of the juvenile facility in which the suicide took place. This OJJDP Bulletin provides suggestions for addressing the problem and recommendations for prevention planning."

Chinese Lifetime Spiral of Gender Violence (pdf)

added 04/24/2010

"Chinese translation of the Lifetime Spiral of Gender Violence. The spiral implicitly locates a range of abuses in the lives of girls and women, revealing patterns of victimization and perpetration. The Lifetime Spiral is designed to be used by everyone to identify histories of violence in their own lives or in the lives of family and friends."

Crimes Against People with Disabilities, 2007 (pdf)

added 03/03/2010

"Using 2007 National Crime Victimization Survey data, the study found that persons with disabilities were victims of about 47,000 rapes. Rates of rape and sexual assault were more than twice those for people without disabilities. In addition, youth with a disability ages 12 to 19 experienced violence at nearly twice the rate as those without a disability."

Detention Reform: An Effective Approach to Reduce Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Juvenile Justice (pdf)

added 09/18/2009

"By prioritizing the reduction of racial and ethnic disparities as a core detention reform strategy, Casey’s Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative has reduced the odds of detention typically faced by African-American and Latino teens. This Detention Reform Brief details JDAI’s efforts at reducing the over-representation of minorities in detention."

Electronic Media and Youth Violence: A CDC Issue Brief for Educators and Caregivers (pdf)

added 11/18/2008
Marci Feldman Hertz, M.S., Corinne David-Ferdon, Ph.D., Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, and the Adolescent Goals Team

"The brief summarizes what is known about young people and electronic aggression, provides strategies for addressing the issue with young people, and discusses the implications for school staff, education policy makers, and parents and caregivers. "

Electronic Media, Violence, and Adolescents: An Emerging Public Health Problem (pdf)

added 11/18/2008
Corinne David-Ferdon, Ph.D., and Marci Feldman Hertz, M.S.

"Attention is growing about the risk of adolescents to become victims of aggression perpetrated by peers with new technology. In September 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention convened a panel of experts in technology and youth aggression to examine this specific risk. This article presents the data and recommendations for future directions discussed at the meeting. The data supports the argument that electronic aggression is an emerging public health problem in need of additional research to support the development and evaluation of effective prevention programs."

Enhancing Child Safety and Online Technologies

added 02/20/2009

"A Final Report of the Internet Safety Technical Task Force to the Multi-State Working Group on Social Networking of State Attorneys General of the United States. The scope of the Task Force's inquiry was to consider those technologies that industry and end users - including parents - can use to help keep minors safer on the Internet."

Helping Traumatized Children at School

added 04/16/2010
Kathleen Nader, D.S.W.

A paper that discusses school interventions for traumatized children. It provides some of the guidelines and resources for use when youth's traumas affect their ability to function at school.

Helping Traumatized Children: Tips for Judges (pdf)

added 12/18/2009

"This fact sheet for judges and other court personnel outlines the impact of trauma on children's development, beliefs, and behaviors. It is designed to help professionals in the juvenile justice and family court system become more effective in addressing the unique needs and challenges of the traumatized children and adolescents they work with."

Homeless Youth and Sexual Exploitation: Research Findings and Practice Implications

added 03/27/2010

"This issue brief reviews research regarding the involvement of unaccompanied, homeless youth in various types of sexual exploitation including survival sex and recruitment into the commercial sex industry and recommends a series of programmatic responses to meet their needs."

Including Animal Cruelty as a Factor in Assessing Risk and Designing Interventions (pdf)

added 09/24/2010
Mary Lou Randour

This paper assesses the feasibility and usefulness of including animal cruelty as a variable in future research and practices, as well as makes recommendations of how this can be accomplished. In addition, recommended policy changes are discussed, including the practice of maintaining statistics on juvenile animal cruelty and the current proposal before the Federal Bureau of Investigation to add animal cruelty as a separate category in the agency’s crime data collection system.

Juvenile Domestic and Family Violence: The Effects of Court-Based Intervention Programs on Recidivism (pdf)

added 12/11/2009
Brenda Uekert, Inger Sagatun-Edwards, Ann Crowe, Tracy Peters, Fred Cheesman, Dina Kameda

"This study tested the effectiveness of two court-based intervention programs in California that addressed juvenile domestic and family violence. Primary findings from the study indicated recidivism rates for offenders with prior records were remarkably consistent across sites, the specialized intervention programs in both Santa Clara and San Francisco counties had a deterrent effect on first-time offenders, and the greatest determinant of the probability of recidivism was background characteristics of the offender."

Juvenile Suicide in Confinement: A National Survey (pdf)

added 12/11/2009

"This report provides the results of a survey on juvenile suicides occurring in confinement between 1995 and 1999. The study examined the demographic characteristics and social history of each victim, the characteristics of the incident, and the features of the juvenile facility in which the suicide took place. The report provides suggestions for addressing the problem and recommendations for prevention planning."

Korean Lifetime Spiral of Gender Violence (pdf)

added 04/24/2010

"Korean translation of the Lifetime Spiral of Gender Violence. The spiral implicitly locates a range of abuses in the lives of girls and women, revealing patterns of victimization and perpetration. The Lifetime Spiral is designed to be used by everyone to identify histories of violence in their own lives or in the lives of family and friends."

Lifetime Spiral of Gender Violence

added 04/23/2010

"The Lifetime Spiral implicitly locates a range of abuses in the lives of girls and women, revealing patterns of victimization and perpetration. The Lifetime Spiral is designed to be used by everyone to identify histories of violence in their own lives or in the lives of family and friends."

Other formats: pdf

Measuring Violence-Related Attitudes, Behaviors, and Influences Among Youths: A Compendium of Assessment Tools - Second Edition

added 01/10/2012
Linda L. Dahlberg, Susan B. Toal, Monica H. Swahn, and Christopher B. Behrens for the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

This compendium provides a set of tools to assess violence-related beliefs, behaviors, and influences, as well as to evaluate programs to prevent youth violence. More than 170 measures are included. Some examples of measures include: "Violent Intentions—Teen Conflict Survey", "Aggressive Behavior—SAGE Baseline Survey", and "Drug and Alcohol Use—Youth Risk Behavior Survey"

On the Road to Equality: Statewide Findings & Policy Recommendations (pdf)

added 05/25/2010

"A supplement to the Status of Girls in Minnesota report by the Women’s Foundation of Minnesota in partnership with the Institute for Women’s Policy Research. Focus groups were conducted in 18 Minnesota communities that included African American, Latino, Native American, Asian American, LBT (Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender), and disabilities communities — to share key research findings and gain community input. This report captures the voices and policy recommendations of these communities, nonprofit and public leaders."

Police diversion of young offenders and Indigenous over-representation (pdf)

added 05/28/2010
Troy Allard, Anna Stewart, April Chrzanowski, James Ogilvie, Dan Birks and Simon Little

"Indigenous over-representation in the justice system is a challenge facing Australian society. This study focused on the extent of Indigenous over-representation, evidence of disparity in how Indigenous and non-Indigenous young people were processed and the impact of diversion on re-contact with the juvenile system."

Prevalence and Predictors of Internet Bullying (pdf)

added 11/18/2008
Kirk R. Williams, Ph.D. and Nancy G. Guerra, Ed.D.

"The purpose of the present study was to contrast the prevalence of Internet bullying with physical and verbal bullying among elementary, middle, and high school boys and girls, and to examine whether key predictors of physical and verbal bullying also predicted Internet bullying."

Psychological Abuse: A Discussion Paper (pdf)

added 05/27/2009
Deborah Doherty and Dorothy Berglund

"This paper is a review of research on psychological abuse in interpersonal and family relationships including in settings such as long-term care residences.The paper presents research findings on the personal, economic and health related costs of psychological abuse to the individual and to society, and briefly outlines legal recourses for victims. It concludes by exploring ways to recognize and address psychological abuse, while emphasizing the importance of developing holistic approaches "

Punjabi Lifetime Spiral of Gender Violence (pdf)

added 04/23/2010

"Punjabi translation of the Lifetime Spiral of Gender Violence. The spiral implicitly locates a range of abuses in the lives of girls and women, revealing patterns of victimization and perpetration. The Lifetime Spiral is designed to be used by everyone to identify histories of violence in their own lives or in the lives of family and friends."

Reducing Disproportionate Minority Contact: Preparation at the Local Level (pdf)

added 12/11/2009
Mark Soler and Lisa M. Garry

"Describes strategies that States and communities can use to reduce disproportionate minority contact with the juvenile justice system. This bulletin is a companion to the latest edition of OJJDP's Disproportionate Minority Contact Technical Assistance Manual. It includes useful 'how to' information drawn from the manual and presents important background on the context in which local preparation takes place—media coverage and public attitudes about crime, race, and youth."

Resilient Girls—Factors That Protect Against Delinquency (pdf)

added 09/06/2009
Stephanie R. Hawkins, Phillip W. Graham, Jason Williams, and Margaret A. Zahn

The Girls Study Group Series examines issues such as patterns of offending among adolescents and how they differ for girls and boys; risk and protective factors associated with delinquency, including gender differences; and the causes and correlates of girls’ delinquency.

School Connectedness: Strategies for Increasing Protective Factors Among Youth (pdf)

added 05/20/2009

"This longitudinal study found that family, school, and individual factors such as school connectedness, parent-family connectedness, high parental expectations for academic achievement, and the adolescent’s level of involvement in religious activities and perceived importance of religion and prayer were protective against a range of adverse behaviors. School connectedness was found to be the strongest protective factor for both boys and girls to decrease substance use, school absenteeism, early sexual initiation, violence, and risk of unintentional injury."

Sexual Victimization in Juvenile Facilities Reported by Youth, 2008-09 (pdf)

added 02/03/2010
Allen J. Beck, Ph.D., Paige M. Harrison, and Paul Guerino

"The report provides national-level and facility-level estimates of sexual victimization by type of activity, including youth-on-youth sexual contact, staff sexual misconduct, and level of coercion. It also includes an analysis of the experience of sexual victimization, characteristics of youth most at risk to victimization, where the incidents occur, time of day, characteristics of perpetrators, and nature of the injuries."

Something is Wrong: Exploring the Roots of Youth Violence (pdf)

added 02/04/2010
Project NIA, Chicago Freedom School, and Teachers for Social Justice

"The Chicago Freedom School, Project NIA and Teachers for Social Justice have partnered along with other volunteers to develop this curriculum guide in order to contribute to the ongoing efforts by young people and their adult allies to analyze the root causes of youth violence and to create local solutions."

Status of Girls in Illinois (pdf)

added 12/18/2009
Mariame Kaba, Melissa Spatz, Michelle VanNatta

This report addresses a wide spectrum of areas affecting Illinois girls’ lives, including sexuality, violence, incarceration, substance abuse, health, education and physical fitness.
Full report is linked. Executive summary can be found at http://www.steansfamilyfoundation.org/pdf/SOG_Executive_Summar.pdf

Status of Girls in Minnesota

added 05/25/2010
Women’s Foundation of Minnesota and the Institute for Women’s Policy Research

"This 2008 report provides detailed information on the status of girls in Minnesota. It also serves as a tool for advocates, researchers, and policy makers in developing a set of interventions that will ensure girls’ economic, social, and political equality in the state. "

Tagalog Lifetime Spiral of Gender Violence (pdf)

added 04/24/2010

"Tagalog translation of the Lifetime Spiral of Gender Violence. The spiral implicitly locates a range of abuses in the lives of girls and women, revealing patterns of victimization and perpetration. The Lifetime Spiral is designed to be used by everyone to identify histories of violence in their own lives or in the lives of family and friends."

Technology and Teen Dating Violence (pdf)

added 03/17/2010

This issue brief explains the ways technology can be used as tools of abuse. It offers tips to providers working on safety planning with teens experiencing abuse.

Telling It Like It Is: Teen Perspectives on Romantic Relationships (pdf)

added 12/06/2009

This brief summarizes findings from focus groups that explored what teens have to say about romantic relationships. In general, the teens displayed an understanding of what a healthy teen relationship should look like, yet at the same time they expressed low expectations about their chances of experiencing that type of relationship themselves. Findings indicate that factors such as relationship violence and few adult role models who displayed healthy relationships contributed to these low expectations.

The Bully-Sexual Violence Pathway in Early Adolescence (pdf)

added 06/01/2012
CDC, Division of Violence Prevention

The focus of this document is to highlight the early findings from a three-year study aimed to examine the overlap between bullying and sexual violence victimization and perpetration in five middle schools in a Midwest state. The first two waves of the study have shown that bullying perpetration and homophobic teasing were significant predictors of sexual harassment perpetration over time.

The Dangers of Detention: The Impact of Incarcerating Youth in Detention and Other Secure Facilities (pdf)

added 09/18/2009
Barry Holman and Jason Ziedenberg

"This policy brief reviews the existing literature on the efficacy of detention and looks at the consequences of detention on young people, their families, and communities."

The Facts On Teen Dating Violence (pdf)

added 03/04/2009

A fact sheet created by Futures Without Violence on the prevalence and consequences of teen dating violence.

The Girls Study Group - Charting the Way to Delinquency Prevention for Girls (pdf)

added 01/13/2009
Margaret A. Zahn, Stephanie R. Hawkins, Janet Chiancone, and Ariel Whitworth

"The Girls Study Group, convened by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), conducted a study to determine the cause of delinquency and increased arrests among female adolescents, factors that influence delinquency, and effective programs in preventing girls’ delinquency."

The Impact of Electronic Media Violence: Scientific Theory and Research (pdf)

added 11/18/2008
L. Rowell Huesmann, Ph.D.

"Research evidence suggests that exposure to violence through various forms of media increases the risk of violent behavior on the viewer’s part, just as growing up in an environment filled with real violence increases the risk of them behaving violently. In this article, this research evidence is critically assessed and the psychological theory that explains why exposure to violence has detrimental effects for both the short and long-term is elaborated. Finally the size of the “media violence effect” is compared with some other well-known threats to society to estimate how important a threat it should be considered."

Trauma among Girls in the Juvenile Justice System (pdf)

added 12/18/2009
Marianne Hennessey, MS., LPC, Julian D. Ford, PhD, Karen Mahoney, MA, Susan J. Ko, PhD, And Christine B. Siegfried, MSW

"This review suggests that trauma-sensitive and gender-specific programming and treatment models are needed in order to address needs and prevent re-traumatization of girls in the juvenile justice system. Specifically, the treatment models should provide girls with developmentally reparative experiences that address not only PTSD but also issues of identity, trust, safety, body image, physical self care, affect regulation, peer group selection and engagement, and sexuality."

Trauma in the Lives of Gang-Involved Youth: Tips for Volunteers and Community Organizations (pdf)

added 12/18/2009

"This fact sheet defines traumatic stress, explains why trauma is so prevalent among gang-involved youth, and provides tips for community organizations and volunteers on working with this population."

UN study on Violence Against Children

added 03/13/2009

"A press release on a new effort to provide a detailed global picture of the nature, extent and causes of violence against children, and propose clear recommendations for action to prevent and reduce such violence. The study focuses on violence against children in five settings: the home and family, schools and educational settings, other institutional settings (orphanages, children in conflict with the law), the community and on the streets, and work situations. "

Understanding School Violence Fact Sheet 2012 (pdf)

added 11/13/2008

An updated fact sheet compiled by the CDC explaining what school violence is, risk factors, health effects, prevention strategies, and much more.

Victimization and Juvenile Offending (pdf)

added 12/18/2009
Christine B. Siegfried, MSSW, Susan J. Ko, PhD, and Ann Kelley, PhD

In this article the authors present statistics on adolescent victimization, its effects, and the connection trauma has with development of aggressive behaviors. The authors conclude with recommendations in reducing the cycle of victimization and subsequent violence.

Violence by Teenage Girls: Trends and Context (pdf)

added 12/11/2009
Zahn, M.A., Brumbaugh, S., Steffensmeier, D., Feld, B.C., Morash, M., Chesney-Lind, M., Miller, J., Payne, A.A., Gottfredson, D.C., Kruttschnitt, C.

"This OJJDP Bulletin assesses trends of juvenile arrest rates for violent crimes, focusing on simple and aggravated assault. Part of the Girls Study Group series, this bulletin examines the involvement of girls in violent activity (including whether such activity has increased relative to the increase for boys) and the contexts in which girls engage in violent behavior. "

Violence in the Lives of Children (pdf)

added 04/01/2009
Brett V. Brown, Ph.D, and Sharon Bzostek, Child Trends

"This data brief from Child Trends reviews data on the types of violence experienced by U.S. children, including exposure to violence through media to abuse by parents and peers. Differences by age, gender, and race/ethnicity are discussed along with priorities for filling gaps in the data that is available on this topic."

Widening Our Lens (pdf)

added 06/25/2010

"This brochure presents a comprehensive strategy to address the impact of child maltreatment, interpersonal, and family violence on youth."

Women and Health: Today’s Evidence, Tomorrow’s Agenda (pdf)

added 04/30/2010

"This report reviews evidence on the health issues that particularly affect girls and women throughout their life course. This report uses currently available data to draw attention to the consequences and costs of failing to address health issues at appropriate points in their lives."

Your Child and Gangs: What You Need to Know about Trauma - Tips for Parents (pdf)

added 12/18/2009

"This fact sheet defines traumatic stress, explains the appeal of gang involvement for traumatized youth, and offers information for parents on helping their children cope with the aftermath of trauma."

Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance - United States, 2003 (pdf)

added 07/31/2008
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) Surveillance Summaries (May 2001)

"This report includes findings from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, with data on the health risk activities of students grade 9-12."

Youth Violence Myths and Realities: A Tale of Three Cities - The Different Story of Delinquent Youth as Told by the Media and by Juvenile Justice System Professionals and the Youth Themselves (pdf)

added 09/18/2009
Barry Krisberg, PhD, Christopher Hartney, Angela Wolf, Fabiana Silva

"This report examines the youth perspective on violence, life circumstance, and the response of the justice system to a supposed growth of violence among troubled youth. The report was also part of testimony before the House Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security on February 11, 2009."

Youth Violence: Fact Sheet

added 11/13/2008

A fact sheet on youth violence compiled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention detailing risk factors, consequences, occurrence, and much more.

Youth Violence: What We Need to Know, Report of the advisory committee to the Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences directorate, National Science Foundation (pdf)

added 04/02/2013

This report addresses what we already know about the etiology of youth violence but challenges that a changing social landscape requires a forward looking research agenda. In the six sections of the report, the authors focus on key areas for future research. This is followed by research summaries from subcommittee members.