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Youth Violence—School violence—articles

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A Guide to Addressing Teen Dating Violence and Sexual Assault in a School Setting (pdf)

added 06/11/2008
Peace Over Violence with assistance from the California Women's Law Center for the Crime and Violence Prevention Center, California Attorney General's Office (February 2008)

"This guide details schools' responsibility to take a leadership role to prevent and respond to teen dating and sexual violence in schools and in the community. While the information is specific to California, much can be applied nationally."

Addressing the Gendered Dimensions of Harassment and Bullying: What domestic and sexual violence advocates need to know (pdf)

added 11/02/2011
Nan D. Stein & Kelly A. Mennemeier

This issue brief brings to light important differences between bullying and harassment and speaks to the priorities and responsibilities of school districts in understanding these differences.

Anger, Interpersonal Relationships, and Health-Related Quality of Life in Bullying Boys Who Are Treated With Outpatient Family Therapy (pdf)

added 10/26/2005
M. K. Nickel, J. Krawczyk, C. Nickel, P. Forthuber, C. Kettler, P. Leiberich, M. Muehlbacher, K. Tritt, F. O. Mitterlehner, C. Lahmann, W. K. Rother, and T. H. Loew

The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of outpatient family psychotherapy as a monotherapy for anger reduction and improvement of behavior and interpersonal relationships and of health-related quality of life in young males with bullying behavior. After 6 months of therapy and a year follow up, the results of this study show that outpatient family therapy seems to be an effective method of reducing anger and improving interpersonal relationships and health-related quality of life in male youths with bullying behavior.

Other formats: html

Children’s Exposure to Violence: A Comprehensive National Survey (pdf)

added 10/23/2009
David Finkelhor, Heather Turner, Richard Ormrod, Sherry Hamby, and Kristen Kracke

"This Bulletin discusses the National Survey of Children’s Exposure to Violence that measured the past-year and lifetime exposure to violence for children age 17 and younger across several major categories: conventional crime, child maltreatment, victimization by peers and siblings, sexual victimization, witnessing and indirect victimization (including exposure to community violence and family violence), school violence and threats, and Internet victimization."

Close the Book on Hate: Responding to Hate Motivated Behaviors in Schools

added 10/03/2001

Discusses hate incidents and hate crimes. Gives lesson plans and teaching tips regarding responding to hate-motivated behavior in schools, holiday activities guidelines, anti-bias education, creating a positive environment in which to raise diversity issues, and resources.

Crime in the Schools: Reducing Conflict With Student Problem Solving (pdf)

added 10/03/2001
Dennis Jay Kenney and Steuart Watson

July 1999. This NIJ Research in Brief discusses an investigation of a student-based problem-solving model for reducing crime in the Nation's schools. Results of this study indicate that a guided group process can reduce school crime and improve the overall school climate. However, most of the conflicts uncovered during this project concerned everyday school interactions rather than gangs, drugs, and armed agitators.

Early Warning, Timely Response: A guide to safe schools (pdf)

added 06/07/2012
Dwyer, K., Osher, D., and Warger, C.

This guide presents a brief summary of the research on violence prevention and intervention and crisis response in schools. It tells school communities what to look for and what to do to prevent, intervene and respond to violence. The intent of this guide is to provide school communities with reliable and practical information about what they can do to be prepared and to reduce the likelihood of violence.

Educator Sexual Misconduct: A Synthesis of Existing Literature (pdf)

added 06/16/2005
Charol Shakeshaft

This literature review of sexual abuse and sexual misconduct responds to the mandate in Section 5414 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA), as amended, to conduct a study of sexual abuse in U.S. schools. To satisfy this mandate, the Department of Education contracted with Dr. Charol Shakeshaft of Hofstra University. Using the limited research that is available in this area, her literature review describes, among other topics: prevalence of educator sexual misconduct, offender characteristics, targets of educator sexual misconduct, and recommendations for prevention of educator sexual misconduct.

Electronic Bullying Among Middle School Students (pdf)

added 11/18/2008
Robin M. Kowalski, Ph.D., and Susan P. Limber, Ph.D.

"This study examined the prevalence of electronic bullying among middle school students. The most common methods for electronic bullying (as reported by both victims and perpetrators) involved the use of instant messaging, chat rooms, and e-mail. As children’s use of electronic communications technologies is unlikely to wane in coming years, continued attention to electronic bullying is critical. Implications of these findings for youth, parents, and educators are discussed."

Electronic Media and Youth Violence: A CDC Issue Brief for Educators and Caregivers (pdf)

added 11/18/2008
Marci Feldman Hertz, M.S., Corinne David-Ferdon, Ph.D., Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, and the Adolescent Goals Team

"The brief summarizes what is known about young people and electronic aggression, provides strategies for addressing the issue with young people, and discusses the implications for school staff, education policy makers, and parents and caregivers. "

Evaluating G.R.E.A.T : A School-Based Gang Prevention Program (pdf)

added 07/21/2006

Typical programs are directed at active gang members, and most target youths who are at risk for joining gangs. The G.R.E.A.T. program, in contrast, is presented to entire classrooms without attempting to predict which students are most likely to become involved with a gang. G.R.E.A.T. is aimed at middle school students and seeks to (1) reduce their involvement in gangs and delinquent behavior, (2) teach them consequences of gang involvement, and (3) help them develop positive relations with law enforcement. These three objectives are addressed through a nine hour curriculum taught in schools by uniformed law enforcement officers. Students are taught to set positive goals, resist negative pressures, resolve conflicts, and understand how gangs impact the quality of their lives. This report summarizes results of a five year study of the G.R.E.A.T. program. The study revealed that G.R.E.A.T. has modest positive effects on adolescents' attitudes and delinquency risk factors but no effects on their involvement in gangs and actual delinquent behaviors.

Facing Down Violence

added 05/20/2000
Professor Jane Gilgun, University of Minnesota

Facing Down Violence is a response to the 1998 tragedy in Littleton, Colorado. An accompanying piece, Violent Persons Construct Their own Worlds from Materials We Give Them is also available.

Other formats: pdf • plaintext

From Words To Weapons: The Violence Surrounding Our Schools (pdf)

added 03/25/1997
Chao, Lena M.

Report from a study where 1,802 students of the Los Angeles Unified School District were surveyed on a range of issues related to their experiences with violence, their own and their friends' weapons possession and their suggestions for ways to lessen violence, racial tension and conflict.

Gang Prevention in Schools (pdf)

added 06/07/2012
Rosario C. Pesce and James D. Wilczynski

This article describes a gang-prevention program that uses community and school resources to keep students in school and out of gangs.

Guide for Preventing and Responding to School Violence (pdf)

added 10/03/2001

Outlines strategies and approaches for members of school communities to consider when creating safer learning environments. Offers guidance for school violence prevention and response in the following areas: prevention, threat assessment, planning and preparation, during a crisis, after a crisis, legal considerations, and working with the media. A list of Web sites pertaining to school safety and violence reduction is included.

Hatred in the Hallways: Violence and Discrimination against Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Students in U.S. Schools

added 03/05/2003

Based on in-depth interviews with 140 youth and 130 teachers, administrators, counselors, parents, and youth service providers in seven states, this report offers the first comprehensive look at the human rights abuses suffered by lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender students at the hands of their peers. Teachers and administrators frequently turn their backs on these abuses, refusing to take reports of harassment or hold accountable those who commit these acts; in some instances, officials encourage or themselves participate in these abuses.

Healing the Hate: A National Hate Crime Prevention Curriculum (pdf)

added 10/03/2001
Karen A. McLaughlin and Kelly J. Brilliant for the Education Development Center, Inc.

Originally designed to be used in classroom settings, these materials have also proven useful in a variety of other venues: working with youth who commit hate crimes, working with schools experiencing specific bias crime problems, in after-school programs, and in teacher training settings.

Homicides of Children and Youth

added 04/22/2002
Finkelhor, D., and Ormrod, R. for Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

October 2001 Bulletin report. Provides a statistical portrait of juvenile homicide victimization by drawing on FBI and other data. As part of OJJDP's Crimes Against Children Series, the Bulletin offers detailed information about overall crime patterns and victim age groups. Specific types of juvenile homicide, including maltreatment homicides, abduction homicides, and school homicides, are discussed in further detail. The Bulletin also explores initiatives designed to prevent homicides of children and youth.

Impacts of a Violence Prevention Program for Middle Schools (pdf)

added 04/19/2012

The violence-prevention program being evaluated consisted of both a curriculum (Responding in Peaceful and Positive Ways) and a whole-school component (Best Behavior). The purpose of the program is to provide middle schools with a comprehensive approach to violence prevention that targets both individual students and the school environment. A second report is expected and will include findings from two and three school years of implementation. Findings from this report (after one year of implementation) show no statistically significant impact on violence indicators.

Increasing School Safety Through Juvenile Accountability Programs

added 01/17/2001
Scott Decker, Chairman, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Missouri

16-page Bulletin posted by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP). The author of this Bulletin, part of OJJDP's JAIBG Best Practices Series, recommends a comprehensive, collaborative approach that involves students, parents, and school officials. The Bulletin describes key elements of effective school-based accountability programs, delineates the steps essential to successful program implementation, and provides examples of promising programs and best practices.

Indicators of School Crime and Safety Series

added 10/03/2001
A joint effort by the Bureau of Justice Statistics and National Center for Education Statistics

Reports data on crime at school from the perspective of students, teachers, principals, and the general population from 1998 to the present.

Kids Killing Kids

added 06/06/1999
Minnesota Department of Human Services

This report outlines ways to address youth violence. It is a response to the current acts of violence in our schools.

Other formats: pdf • plaintext

Law Enforcement Referral of At-Risk Youth: The SHIELD Program

added 01/17/2001
Phelan Wyrick, a Program Manager in OJJDP's Research and Program Development Division

This Bulletin describes how the SHIELD program mobilizes these assets to identify youth at risk of involvement in violent behavior, substance abuse, and gang activity and to address their needs through a multidisciplinary team approach involving representatives from the community, schools, and service agencies.

Prevalence and Predictors of Internet Bullying (pdf)

added 11/18/2008
Kirk R. Williams, Ph.D. and Nancy G. Guerra, Ed.D.

"The purpose of the present study was to contrast the prevalence of Internet bullying with physical and verbal bullying among elementary, middle, and high school boys and girls, and to examine whether key predictors of physical and verbal bullying also predicted Internet bullying."

Preventing Student Sexual Harassment

added 03/06/2001
Wendy Schwartz, Teachers College, Columbia University

December 2000 report posted on the Eric Clearinghouse on Urban Education.

Preventing Violence by Elementary School Children

added 03/06/2001
Wendy Schwartz, Teachers College, Columbia University

November 1999 report posted on the Eric Clearinghouse on Urban Education.

Preventing Violence in Our Schools

added 05/18/1999

Resource that gives advice and resources to parents and educators on preventing youth violence.

Preventing Youth Hate Crimes: A Manual for Schools and Communities, 1998

added 10/03/2001

Promotes the discussion, planning, immediate action, and long-term responses of hate crime to assist schools and communities in confronting and eliminating harassment, intimidation, violence, and other hate-motivated behavior among young people.

Report on Research on Rape and Violence (pdf)

added 05/14/2008
California Coalition Against Sexual Assault

"This report is a compendium of research on issues related to rape, sexual assault, and violence. While efforts have been made to include research from as many sources as possible, it is inevitable that other valuable sources of research may contain information no included in this report."

Reporting School Violence

added 03/17/2003

This 2002 document provides an overview of state laws enacted to address violence in U.S. schools, particularly those laws concerning the collection of data and reporting of such incidents.

Resilient Girls—Factors That Protect Against Delinquency (pdf)

added 09/06/2009
Stephanie R. Hawkins, Phillip W. Graham, Jason Williams, and Margaret A. Zahn

The Girls Study Group Series examines issues such as patterns of offending among adolescents and how they differ for girls and boys; risk and protective factors associated with delinquency, including gender differences; and the causes and correlates of girls’ delinquency.

Resolving conflict creatively: Evaluating the developmental effects of a school-based violence prevention program in neighborhood and classroom context

added 08/24/2007
J. Lawrence Aber, Stephanie Jones, Joshua Brown, Nina Chaudry, & Faith Samples

"This study evaluated the short-term impact of a school-based violence prevention initiative on developmental processes thought to place children at risk for future aggression and violence and examined the influence of classrooms and neighborhood contexts on the effectiveness of the violence prevention initiative."

Safe Harbor: A School-Based Victim Assistance/Violence Prevention Program

added 07/15/2003

The Safe Harbor program addresses violence prevention and victim assistance in school-based settings.

Scared at School: Sexual Violence against Girls in South African Schools

added 03/05/2003

This report documents school-based sexual violence in South Africa; reviews school and state responses to sexual violence; explains the discriminatory impact on girls' education rights when the government does not respond adequately and effectively to gender-based violence; and sets forth recommendations to rectify these problems.

School Connectedness: Strategies for Increasing Protective Factors Among Youth (pdf)

added 05/20/2009

"This longitudinal study found that family, school, and individual factors such as school connectedness, parent-family connectedness, high parental expectations for academic achievement, and the adolescent’s level of involvement in religious activities and perceived importance of religion and prayer were protective against a range of adverse behaviors. School connectedness was found to be the strongest protective factor for both boys and girls to decrease substance use, school absenteeism, early sexual initiation, violence, and risk of unintentional injury."

School Crisis Preparedness

added 02/13/2001

Page that discusses school crisis preparedness. Gives steps to enhance preparedness and links to sample guidelines.

School Disaster: Planning and Initial Interventions

added 04/16/2001
Kathi Nader and Robert Pynoos, UCLA Neuropsychiatric Institute

This paper examines the roles and responses of administrators, teachers and staff, and parents as well as those of children following disaster. The following issues will be discussed: 1) primary intervention; 2) secondary intervention; 3) the intervention team; 4)administrators and staff; 5)parents and children; and psychological first aid.

School Violence Prevention: Strategies to Keep Schools Safe

added 11/19/2001
Alexander Volokh with Lisa Snell

Policy Study No. 234, January 1998. Posted by the Reason Foundation. Discusses the many faces of violence and the different methods of violence prevention.

School Violence: Prevalence, Fears, and Prevention

added 02/08/2002
Jaana Juvonen, Rand Education

2001 paper. Describes the options that are currently available for schools. An analysis of the key components of various approaches in terms of their potential positive and negative effects can assist in the selection of policies, programs, and procedures while we wait for evaluations to be conducted.

School Violence: Prevalence, Fears, and Prevention (pdf)

added 03/12/2013
Jaana Juvonen, for RAND

This paper examines the problem of school violence through current literature to determine what schools are doing, and are able to do, to combat the problem.

Something is Wrong: Exploring the Roots of Youth Violence (pdf)

added 02/04/2010
Project NIA, Chicago Freedom School, and Teachers for Social Justice

"The Chicago Freedom School, Project NIA and Teachers for Social Justice have partnered along with other volunteers to develop this curriculum guide in order to contribute to the ongoing efforts by young people and their adult allies to analyze the root causes of youth violence and to create local solutions."

Special Education and the Juvenile Justice System

added 12/15/2000
Sue Burrell, Staff Attorney, and Loren Warboys,

16-page Bulletin posted by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP). This bulletin is intended to inform judges, attorneys, advocates, probation officers, institutional staff, and other youth-serving professionals about the impact of special education issues on juvenile justice matters. The Bulletin summarizes the provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and analyzes their relevance to the juvenile justice process from intake and initial interview to institutional placement and secure confinement.

The Effectiveness of Universal School-Based Programs for the Prevention of Violent and Aggressive Behavior (pdf)

added 07/30/2008
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (August 2007)

"This report provides a summary of findings from a review of evidence concerning the effectiveness of universal school-based violence prevention programs."

Understanding School Violence Fact Sheet 2012 (pdf)

added 11/13/2008

An updated fact sheet compiled by the CDC explaining what school violence is, risk factors, health effects, prevention strategies, and much more.

Youth Exposed to Domestic Violence: A Handbook for the Juvenile Justice System to Enhance Assessment and Intervention Strategies for Youth from Violent Homes (pdf)

added 05/12/2004
London Family Court Clinic

This handbook contains information that will help you learn about: domestic violence and its impact on adolescents; evaluating risk and safety planning for victims of domestic violence; coordinated justice responses to domestic violence and the role of juvenile custody programs and probation; risk assessment and reduction with adolescent perpetrators of intimate partner and family violence; promising practices for adolescent perpetrators of intimate partner and family violence; and resources on domestic violence for adolescent victims and perpetrators.

Youth Gangs in Schools (pdf)

added 12/18/2000
James Howell, Ph.D., an Adjunct Researcher at OJJDP's National

This Bulletin analyzes findings from the School Crime Supplements (SCS) to the National Crime Victim Survey, describes characteristics of gangs in schools, and discusses contributory factors to gang prevalence in schools. The impact of gang presence in schools on victimization is also reviewed.

Youth Violence Documents

added 12/17/1996

Provides texts of numerous articles related to gangs, youth violence, school violence and drug trafficking.

Youth, Safety, and Violence: Schools, Communities, and Mental Health (pdf)

added 05/07/2013
Daniel F. Wilhelm, Annie Salsich, Jim Parsons, and Krista Larson for the Vera Institute of Justice

This policy brief from the Vera Institute of Justice offers expert advice on ways to counter violence against youth by looking into school safety, mental illness, and the delivery of mental health services.