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Housing and Battered Women: A Case Study of Domestic Violence Programs in Iowa

Building Comprehensive Solutions to Domestic Violence: Publication # 3, A Policy and Practice Paper

Amy Correia

Published: March 1999

The ideas expressed herein are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the official position or policies of The Ford Foundation or other funders of the National Resource Center on Domestic Violence.

Published by the National Resource Center on Domestic Violence, a project of the Pennsylvania Coalition Against Domestic Violence

These materials may be reprinted or adapted with proper acknowledgment.

Acknowledgments

Special thanks to The Ford Foundation for its support of the National Resource Center on Domestic Violence and Building Comprehensive Solutions to Domestic Violence, the initiative under which these materials were produced. We also wish to acknowledge the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services for their ongoing funding of the NRC.

Author's Notes

This paper could not have been produced without the full support of the Iowa Coalition Against Domestic Violence, and the domestic violence programs who participated in the study. Laurie Schipper's support and guidance was critical to the success of this project. Julia Holmes and Susan Schechter provided valuable assistance in designing the study. Thanks also to Jill Davies, Anne Menard, Margaret Nelson and Susan Schechter, for reviewing multiple drafts and offering comments and suggestions that greatly improved the document.

About the Author

Amy Correia is a Program and Policy Analyst for Building Comprehensive Solutions to Domestic Violence initiative. She is available to provide technical assistance to state domestic violence coalitions interested in completing a similar study. She can be reached at the University of Iowa School of Social Work at 319-335-1253 (FAX - 319-335-1711) or via e-mail at amy-correia@uiowa.edu .

Housing and Battered Women: An Overview

Domestic violence: A national and state overview

It is estimated that between 1.8 million and 4 million women are assaulted in their home by an intimate partner every year, and that women suffer 10 times as many incidents of domestic violence as do men. [1] According to Iowa's Incidence Based Crime Reports, the rate of reported domestic violence is increasing in Iowa. In 1993, 5,158 domestic violence incidents were reported to the police. By 1995, the police had responded to domestic violence calls 6,477 times. [2]

Many women seek safety at a battered women's shelter. [3] In Iowa there are thirty-three domestic abuse programs attempting to serve 99 counties. In FY 1997, 2,566 women and 2,747 children received safe shelter through Iowa's domestic violence programs. [4] Based on prevalence studies, this represents only a fraction of the women abused every year. [5]

Battered Women and Housing

Women are the fastest growing segment of homeless and inadequately housed citizens. [6] Women head just over 76% of the 1.25 million households currently residing in public housing. [7] Almost 60% of female-headed households rent rather than own housing and 39% of them are poor. [8] Housing problems for women who are mothers and family providers can be compounded due to lack of job opportunities, childcare, and reliable transportation.

Women's homelessness is shaped by several key factors, including poverty, scarcity of affordable housing, unemployment or underemployment and domestic violence. [9] A study of low-income housed and homeless mothers found that 91.6% of the homeless women and 81.8% of low-income housed mothers reported physical or sexual assaults at some point in their lives, and sixty-three percent reported assaults by an intimate male partner. [10]

By 1997, social and economic factors had converged to convince Iowa domestic violence advocates to examine the relationship between housing and domestic violence. These factors included welfare reform; shrinking federal funds for subsidized housing, coupled with policy changes that increased waiting lists; a decrease in the affordable housing stock; and an increase in the poverty rate for female-headed households.

Attaining safe and affordable housing is a critical component of the economic security of battered women. Developing a sense of economic security can increase a battered woman's feeling of physical safety. In the coming years, the domestic violence field, government funders, policy makers, and legislators will need to create additional housing and economic security options to help battered women live free of violence.

A Case Study of Domestic Violence Programs

In 1997, a case study of Iowa's domestic violence programs was developed in consultation with the Iowa Coalition Against Domestic Violence, the University of Iowa School of Social Work, and the National Resource Center on Domestic Violence. A survey about housing needs was sent to all domestic violence programs in Iowa, and one follow-up survey was administered. (See the Appendix for study methodology and survey instrument.)

The goals of the study were to: 1) describe the housing services currently provided to battered women by domestic violence programs, and 2) identify barriers battered women face in securing affordable housing.

Study Results

Respondents

Twenty-four of Iowa's 33 domestic violence programs completed the survey. These twenty-four programs reported serving a total of 77 of Iowa's 99 counties -with 4 counties served by more than one program. In addition, four programs provide services to 7 counties located in neighboring states. The responding programs are serving an average of four counties each, with four serving one county and one serving nine counties. Half of the programs provide help to four or more counties. Table 1 offers a summary of the number of counties reached by 24 domestic violence programs.

Table 1. Number of Programs by Counties Served (24 programs serving 77 Iowa counties)

Number of ProgramsServing%
4 programs1 county17%
4 programs2 counties17%
4 programs3 counties17%
4 programs4 counties17%
4 programs5 counties17%
2 programs6 counties8%
1 program7 counties4%
1 program9 counties4%
Total: 24 programs77 counties100%

Housing services and advocacy

All of the programs surveyed provide emergency housing services to battered women. Very few assist battered women with transitional or permanent housing. Graph 1 illustrates the housing services provided by 24 domestic violence programs in Iowa. [11]

Figure 1. Housing Services Provided by 24 Domestic Violence Programs

Number of service providers that provide housing services

Emergency shelter

All of the twenty-four programs offer emergency shelter for battered women. Seventeen (71%) of the programs operate a shelter facility, making it the most common type of emergency housing provided to battered women by the responding programs. Fifteen of the programs operate a shelter facility as their only emergency shelter option. Five programs offer only hotel/motel emergency shelter. Three programs offer a combination of safe homes and hotel/motel and one program provides safe homes only. Two of the programs offering emergency shelter only in hotels/motels and safe homes also provide referral and transportation to other shelters.

Shelter capacity ranged from 3 to 96 women and children. It was most common (n=10) for the maximum allowable length of stay to be 30 days, with the longest maximum length of stay at ninety days (n=1). Three programs did not indicate a maximum length of stay in emergency shelter, while eight indicated on the questionnaire that the length of stay was negotiable and based on the individual situation.

While eleven programs use hotels/motels for emergency shelter, only six indicated the number of women and children they can accommodate per night with this kind of emergency housing. One program can serve six women and children, one program three women and children, and one program can serve only one household in a hotel.

Four programs use safe homes. Two of the programs have two safe homes, one program has six safe homes, and one program has twenty-one safe homes. The maximum length of stay in these safe homes ranges from two to seven days.

Based on the information compiled from the survey, the 18 programs that included capacity information provide a total of 575 beds each night for emergency shelter for battered women and their children. See Table 2.

Table 2. Emergency Shelter Capacity of 18 Programs

Number of ProgramsCapacity RangeTotal
5 ProgramsFrom 45 to 96 women and children313
7 ProgramsFrom 20 to 39 women and children188
6 ProgramsFrom 3 to 16 women and children74
Total capacity: 18 programsFrom 3 to 96 women and children575

Transitional housing

Three programs operate transitional housing for battered women. One program has two 2-bedroom apartments with a maximum stay of six months, one has one apartment with a maximum length of stay at two months, and one operates seven units of transitional housing with a 24-month maximum length of stay. The total households served state-wide in transitional housing at any one time through these three projects is ten. See Table 3.

Table 3. Transitional Housing Provided by 3 Programs

Number of FamiliesLength of Stay
Program 126 months
Program 212 months
Program 3724 months
Total:10 families

Housing advocacy and case management

Four programs (17%) identified that they provide housing case management or advocacy. One program has a housing case manager who works forty hours a week, one has a case manager who works twenty-five hours a week, one wrote in 'all staff advocate,' and one respondent wrote that advocates devote 4 hours a week to this task. All of these programs operate emergency shelter facilities.

Permanent housing

Few programs are offering permanent housing services to battered women. Only one program checked the permanent housing item; however, a total of three reported receiving funding for permanent housing. One project provides emergency financial assistance for rent, utility payments, and security deposits, and another provided funds to four families in 1997 for security deposits.

Funding

Federal funding streams that can be used to provide housing services to battered women were listed in the survey. [12] Three of the funding streams are U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) funds that are block-granted to the state and certain localities for distribution, and one funding source originates at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Most of the surveyed programs (63%) received federal funding to support emergency housing services to battered women. The funding streams most accessed were the Emergency Shelter Grants Program (ESGP) and the Family Violence Services and Prevention Act (FVPSA). [13] Nine programs did not report using federal funds to support their housing services.

Fifteen of the programs reported receiving federal funding from one or more of the sources listed in Table 4. The five programs that received CDBG funding also received ESGP and FVPSA funding. Four programs reported only ESGP funding and one reported only FVPSA funding. The remaining five reported the receipt of both ESGP and FVPSA. Table 4 summarizes the totals.

Table 4. Number of programs utilizing specific federal funding sources (n=15)

Emergency ShelterTransitional HousingPermanent Housing
CDBG (HUD) Funding range:5 programs $6,200-$25,00000
HOME (HUD)000
ESGP (HUD)Funding range:12 programs $6,200-$30,0003 programs $6,200-$8,0002 programs $2,500
FVPSA (HHS)Funding range:11 programs$5,800-$28,00000

The range of support received by domestic violence programs from HUD funding sources was compared to the total HUD funding distributed to the entire state. Table 5 shows that the domestic violence programs in Iowa are either not receiving this funding, or not applying for it. It is important to note that battered women are also being served by other community organizations that receive this funding; however, it is also obvious that more could be done. The finding illustrates how important it is for battered women's advocates to be involved in developing the Consolidated Plan [14] , which is the tool used by the state to prioritize community needs and identify funding priorities.

Table 5. 1997 Federal Housing Funding from the Department of Housing and Urban Development [a]

Total to state and localities in IowaTotal reported by 24 domestic violence programs
CDBG$47,621,000$ 74,979
HOME$12,653,000$ 0
ESGP$ 1,252,000$173,617

[a] Iowa Coalition for Housing and the Homeless (Winter, 1998). ICHH Winter '98 Newsletter. Des Moines, Iowa.


Barriers to permanent housing

The survey listed common barriers battered women may face in their search for permanent housing. Domestic violence programs were asked to check which barriers battered women face in their geographic area. The respondents checked barriers and indicated the total number of counties affected by this barrier.

Twenty-one (88%) of the respondents indicated that the lack of affordable permanent housing and the lack of transportation among potential housing opportunities, jobs, and services were the major barriers battered women face in obtaining housing. Also, 20 programs indicated a lack of resources for security deposits. Table 6 summarizes the findings.

Table 6. Ranking of Housing Barriers for Battered Women (n=24 programs, serving 77 counties)

Barriers to housingTotal # of programs identifying as a need/barrierTotal # of counties affected by barrier
Lack of affordable permanent housing for women with children21 (88%)60
Lack of affordable permanent housing for women alone21 (88%)64
Lack of transportation among potential housing opportunities, jobs, and services21 (88%)50
Lack of resources for security deposits20 (83%)74
No transitional housing19 (79%)60
Long waiting lists in public housing19 (79%)37
Lack of housing for large families18 (75%)46
Lack of safety resources for women to remain in their homes17 (71%)53
Long waiting lists for Section 8 certificate/voucher program17 (71%)39
Discriminatory practices by landlords16 (67%)42
Substandard housing13 (54%)28
Waiting lists for legal representation12 (50%)30
Reliance by landlords on references/credit checks12 (50%)24
Lack legal resources/representation for battered women10 (42%)31
Waiting lists for transitional housing10 (42%)18
No public housing3 (13%)9
No Section 8 certificate/voucher program3 (13%)7

Economic and racial/ethnic diversity

Twenty of the domestic violence programs estimated the percent of women exiting shelter that receive welfare benefits. The range of these estimates was from 10% up to 100%. The 60% to 75% range was most often cited. Thus, it can be inferred that many of the battered women served by domestic violence programs are low-income.

The programs were asked to identify whether specific racial/ethnic subgroups of women were present in their service area. Table 7 illustrates that at least half, and up to 88%, of the programs identified certain groups present in their area.

Table 7. Underserved groups in program's service areas (n=24)

GroupTotal # of Programs indicating presence in service area
Latinas21
African American women19
Native American women15
Migrant farm workers5
Illegal immigrants16
Recent immigrants12

Twenty respondents (83%) believe that racial and ethnic minority battered women have greater difficulty accessing housing (emergency, transitional, and permanent) than non-minority battered women. Sixteen (67%) indicated specific counties where racial and ethnic minority women have greater difficulties in accessing permanent housing opportunities. Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1968 prohibit discrimination in federally assisted housing and in the private rental and homeownership market. Further study should be conducted to determine the prevalence of housing discrimination affecting racial and ethnic minority women.

Sixteen programs identified barriers which minority battered women face in accessing emergency shelter from domestic violence programs. Seven (29%) indicated language as the greatest barrier impeding minority battered women in accessing services from domestic violence programs. The second most frequently cited barrier was the lack of knowledge by the sub-group of the services and resources available. Two respondents acknowledged that the lack of staff diversity of the domestic violence program may be a barrier for service acquisition. Two programs believed that no barriers exist for racial and ethnic women in accessing services from the domestic violence program.

The barriers which minority battered women face in accessing transitional and permanent housing included lack of knowledge about resources, language barriers, issues surrounding immigration, community attitudes; specific landlord behaviors and attitudes that discriminate against ethnic and racial minority women, racism and stereotyping.

Collaboration with other agencies/housing organizations

Eleven programs (46%) indicated involvement with local homelessness coalitions, with ten indicating regular attendance at meetings and four serving on subcommittees. Many of the respondents who reported involvement with a local homeless coalition indicated the benefits:

  • Our agency is made aware of other services...and other funding sources.

  • It is essential to provide a continuity of care and services of the homeless, many of which are victims of domestic violence.

  • It heightens awareness and educates regarding the problems that victims of domestic violence have in regards to housing.

Ten of the programs receiving funding from sources listed in Table 4 also reported involvement with a local homeless coalition. Of the thirteen programs (54%) indicating no involvement in a homeless coalition, seven did not report receipt of financial support from the funding sources. There may be a relationship between involvement with collaborative community homeless efforts and funding acquisition. [15]

Sixteen programs (67%) identified counties that administer the Section 8 certificate and voucher program, and 15 (63%) reported collaborations with public housing authorities. These 15 programs reported collaborations with twenty-five different public housing authorities. In four of these collaborations the programs were very satisfied; in thirteen, somewhat satisfied; in five, neutral, in one, somewhat dissatisfied; and in two, very dissatisfied. Based on comments made on the survey, the dissatisfaction seemed to stem from the lack of housing, not from the collaboration itself.

Conclusion

The survey results describe how domestic violence programs are responding to the housing needs of battered women and provide a list of barriers which battered women face in attempting to secure permanent housing. While all programs are responding to the emergency housing needs of battered women, there is a lack of focus on battered women's transitional and permanent housing needs by domestic violence programs and other agencies. Concurrently, it was found that only a small portion of Iowa's federal funding to support the development of housing programs is provided to domestic violence programs. It may be that domestic violence programs have concentrated their advocacy efforts in other arenas, have not yet developed the organizational capacity to create a housing agenda, or are unaware of the funding possibilities.

The housing barriers identified by the programs can be categorized into two types: the lack of affordable housing stock and economic issues. This finding illustrates the interrelatedness of housing and economic issues. For example, a lack of job opportunities increases the likelihood that families will need a housing subsidy. The availability of living wage jobs, coupled with transportation and child care, would make housing subsidies less needed.

On top of the housing barriers identified by the domestic violence programs for all abused women, minority battered women face additional barriers when attempting to secure housing, whether it is emergency, transitional, or permanent.

Domestic violence programs' low use of HUD funding sources is notable. The HOME Investment Partnership Program is a significant source of federal funding for housing that is not being used by domestic violence programs in Iowa. The majority of programs are using only ESGP and FVPSA to provide emergency housing services. This finding indicates an opportunity for domestic violence programs, local and state housing agencies, and non-profit housing organizations, to work together to respond to the housing needs of battered women and their children.

The attainment of safe and affordable housing is a critical component of safety and economic security for battered women and their children. Taking into consideration the continual changes in federal housing policy, and changes in local housing markets, key community players -- including domestic violence programs, non-profit housing organizations, private foundations, and units of state and local government -- should develop a response to battered women's needs for transitional and permanent housing. Working together, more housing can be created for abused women and their children.

Appendix

Study Method

A self-administered questionnaire was sent to all the domestic violence programs in Iowa. The questionnaire was developed in consultation with Susan Schechter, Policy Consultant with the National Resource Center on Domestic Violence, and Dr. Julia Holmes, Assistant Professor in Social Work at the University of Iowa. Additionally, comments were obtained from the director of the National Resource Center on Domestic Violence, a legal services lawyer, and the Executive Director of the Iowa Coalition Against Domestic Violence (ICADV).

The questionnaire contained both open-ended and closed questions. The questions were designed to find out about the types of housing and advocacy services currently offered by domestic violence programs, and the federal housing funding they receive for their program. Programs were instructed to identify barriers battered women face in attempting to secure affordable housing. Questions to assess the economic security of battered women when they exit shelter were included. Also included were questions designed to determine the specialized needs of minority battered women.

The questionnaire was sent to 33 programs in December 1997. A cover letter and consent form were included with the questionnaire, along with a return envelope. Also, a letter from Laurie Schipper, the Executive Director of the Iowa Coalition Against Domestic Violence (ICADV) was enclosed, encouraging the programs to reply. At the January meeting of the Iowa Coalition of Domestic Violence, the director distributed questionnaires to the projects that did not respond initially. The questionnaire also was mailed to any programs not in attendance at the meeting.

The instrument asked about three types of housing services provided by domestic violence programs: emergency shelter, transitional housing, and permanent housing. For the purposes of this study, emergency shelter was defined as any shelter provided to battered women in crisis, the purpose of which is to maintain a safe space for women who are fleeing an abusive partner. Many domestic violence programs operate emergency shelter facilities. 'Safe homes' are families in the community who volunteer to shelter a battered woman in their home. Additionally, many programs use funds for crisis shelter in local hotels/motels.

Transitional housing is housing that assists homeless individuals and families in their transition from homelessness to permanent housing. For the purposes of the study, transitional housing was defined as housing coupled with supportive services for an extended period of time for battered women who have left an abusive relationship, but are in need of additional support and services to rebuild their lives.

Permanent housing services are any services provided by the domestic violence program that assists battered women with the acquisition or retention of permanent housing. Financial assistance with security deposits, utility deposits, or rental assistance was included in this category.

Questionnaire to (insert state name) Domestic Violence Programs

Note

This survey was modified from the original that was used in Iowa Building Comprehensive Solutions to Domestic Violence

Housing and Battered Women

Name and title: _____________________________________________________________

Organization: _______________________________________________________________

Address: __________________________________________________________________

Phone: ___________________________ Fax: ____________________________________

E-mail: ____________________________________________________________________

List Counties your program is funded or designated to serve:

Please check the types of housing services that are currently provided by your program. For each type of housing, fill in the maximum # of families that can be accommodated and maximum # of days or months that they can stay.

  • ___Shelter, with room for ___ families, with a stay of ___days/mo(circle)

  • ___Hotel/motel, with room for ___ families, with a stay of ___days/mo(circle)

  • ___Safe home(s) with room for ___ families, with a stay of ___days/mo(circle)

  • ___Transitional housing, with room for___ families, with a stay of ___mo/yrs(circle)

  • ___Permanent housing, with room for ___ families

  • ___Housing case manager(s) or advocate(s) ____ (# of staff), who devote _____hours a week on housing advocacy

  • ___Other housing services or housing advocacy (please list):

  1. Which counties in your service area have no domestic violence or homeless shelter, or hotels/safe houses available for battered women and their children within the county' (list county names)

  2. The following is a list of federal funding that can be accessed to support housing initiatives for battered women. Identify which funding sources your program has accessed in the past year to support emergency shelter, transitional housing, and permanent housing (initiatives for permanent housing could include funding for a full-time housing case manager, funds for security deposits and rental assistance):

    For Emergency Shelter (list amount)For Transitional housing (list amount)For Permanent housing (list amount)
    Community Development Block Grant (CDBG)$$$
    HOME Investment Partnerships Program$$$
    Emergency Shelter Grants Program (ESGP)$$$
    FVPSA (Family Violence Prevention and Services Act)$$$
    FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency)$$$
    SHP (Supportive Housing Program)$$$

  3. Is your program involved with a local homeless coalition' ___yes ___no. If yes, do you regularly attend meetings' ___yes ___no. Do you serve on a subcommittee/ ___yes ___no. If yes, please list subcommittee name:

  4. How do you think this involvement (both attending meetings and participation on a subcommittee) benefits battered women's access to permanent housing:

  5. Identify specific needs and barriers facing battered women in their search for permanent affordable housing in the counties you serve. Check all that apply. Circle the three most pressing issues.

    Check below all that apply# of counties with need/barrier
    No transitional housing
    Waiting list for transitional housing
    Lack of affordable permanent housing for women alone
    Lack of affordable permanent hosing for women with children
    No public housing
    Long waiting lists in public housing
    No Section 8 certificate/voucher program
    Long waiting lists for Section 8 certificate/voucher program
    Lack of accessible housing for women with disabilities
    Substandard housing
    Lack of housing for large families
    Lack of transportation between affordable housing, jobs and services
    Discriminatory practices by landlords against battered women
    Reliance by landlords on references/credit checks
    Lack of resources for security deposits
    Control/sabotage by abusive partner of her efforts to seek housing
    Other (list or describe)

    Please circle the 3 most pressing issues in the list above.

  6. Complete the following table:

    Estimate...%
    The % of women you served last year who received welfare benefits (FIP, food stamps, medicaid), excluding housing assistance
    The % of women you serve who are low-income
    The % of women you serve with no income
    The number of women your program was forced to turn away from shelter last year because the shelter was filled to capacity

  7. Indicate whether each of the following racial/ethnic minority groups are present in your service areas:

    • ___ Latinas

    • ___ African American women

    • ___ Native American women

    • ___ Asian American women

    • ___ Southeast Asian refugees

    • ___ Migrant farm workers

    • ___ Undocumented women

    • ___ Recent immigrants from __________________(please list place from which they came)

      • _______________

      • _______________

      • _______________

  8. Do you think racial/ethnic minority battered women have greater difficulty accessing housing than non-minority battered women' ___ yes ___no

  9. What are the major barriers racial/ethnic minority battered women face that non-minority battered women don't face in accessing either emergency shelter, transitional housing or permanent housing:

    emergency shelter:_________________________________________________________

    transitional housing:________________________________________________________

    permanent housing:________________________________________________________

  10. Please list the counties in your service area that have the Section 8 certificate/voucher program:

    __________________________________________________________________

    _______________________________________________________________________

  11. Are you aware of the preferences the local housing authorities in your service area are using to place families on their waiting lists' ___yes ___no. If yes, can you list which housing authorities (name of housing authority and county location) provide preferences to battered women?

    _______________________________________________________________________

    _______________________________________________________________________

  12. Are you working with a housing authority that is implementing a specific housing program that may benefit battered women, such as vouchers for family unification, welfare -to-work, or the family self-sufficiency program' __ yes __no __ don't know.

    If yes, please describe the project, your role in it and the outcome for battered women:

    ____________________________________________________________________

    _______________________________________________________________________

    _____________________________________________________________________

  13. Additional comments regarding battered women and housing:

    _______________________________________________________________________

    _______________________________________________________________________

    _______________________________________________________________________

Thank you for your participation!

Please return the questionnaire in the enclosed envelope by (insert date) to: (insert address)



[1] National Crime Victimization Survey from 1987 to 1991, cited in the report of the Iowa Supreme Court Task Force on Domestic Violence, 1994.

[2] Iowa Department of Public Safety (1997). Incidence based Iowa uniform crime reports. Des Moines: Division of Administrative Services.

[3] Domestic violence can be defined as '..a pattern of criminal and non-criminal abusive behaviors -- physical, emotional and/or sexual - that one individual in an intimate relationship uses to gain control over their partner.' (Johnson County Coalition Against Domestic Violence Mission Statement, Iowa City, Iowa) In this paper, the terms domestic violence and domestic abuse will be used interchangeably.

[4] Statistics received from Iowa's Crime Victims Assistance Division.

[5] Strauss, M. and Gelles, R. (1992). Physical Violence in American Families: Risk Factors and Adaptations to Violence in 8,145 Families. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

[6] Women and Housing Task Force. (September, 1996). Unlocking the Door III: A call to action. Silver Spring, Maryland: McAuley Institute.

[7] Ibid.

[8] National Low Income Housing Coalition (NLIHC). 1996 Advocate's Resource Book.

[9] Hagen, J. (1987). Gender and homelessness. Social Work, 32(4), 312-316.

[10] Bassuk, E., Browne, A., &Buckner, J. (1996) Single mothers and welfare. Scientific American, 275(4), 60-67.

[11] The respondents were instructed to check all that apply, so totals exceed 24.

[12] Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) funds can be used to improve communities through providing decent housing and expanding economic opportunities, mainly for persons with low and moderate incomes. HOME Investment Partnerships Program funds have been used in Iowa by non-profit Community Housing Development Organizations (CHDO) to build transitional housing. The Emergency Shelter Grant Program (ESGP) funds the renovation and building costs of emergency shelter facilities as well as ongoing operating costs and social services. The Family Violence Prevention and Services Act (FVPSA), administered by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, allocates funds for the provision of immediate shelter and other support services for battered women and their children.

[13] All domestic violence programs in Iowa that are members of the state domestic violence coalition receive FVPSA funding. The survey asked for programs to report on funding used to support the housing activities of its organization.

[14] A Consolidated Plan is the Department of Housing and Urban Development's (HUD) management tool for monitoring the performance of states and localities efforts to address low-income housing and economic development needs. Each state is required to develop a Consolidated Plan that describes how federal housing and community development resources will be prioritized. The federal resources the Plan refers to are Community Development Block Grant (CDBG), HOME, and Emergency Shelter Grant Program (ESGP) funds. Entitlement cities, those with a population greater than 50,000, receive federal money directly and are also required to produce a Consolidated Plan. Public input in formulation of the plans is required.

[15] For example, the active involvement of the Maine Coalition to End Domestic Violence with the Maine Coalition for the Homeless (MCH) led to MCH's recommendation to the Maine State Housing Authority that federal HUD funds be secured for transitional housing for battered women. For descriptions of other innovative housing programs for battered women, see Correia, A. (January, 1999). Innovative Strategies to Provide Housing for Battered Women. Harrisburg, PA: National Resource Center on Domestic Violence.