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Bibliography of Trafficking

Yukiko Nakajima

Published: October, 2002 (Updated August 2004)


In this bibliography, the author provides an overview of existing resources for trafficking of persons, particularly of women and girls. The author collected a wide variety of perspectives on trafficking to provide a basic understanding of the issue. The bibiography is subcategorized by continent from which the victims are sent. If more than two continents are involved as sending countries, it is categorized under "general." Although the author tried to include resources for various regions of the world, the author's direct experience is limited to working with victims of trafficking in Southeast Asia and East Asia. Therefore, more resources are focused on Asian victims of trafficking.



Adepoju, A. (2002). Fostering Free Movement of Persons in West Africa: Achievements, Constraints, and Prospects for Intraregional Migration. International Migration, 40 (2), 3-28.

To understand the dynamics of diverse migrations in West Africa, this paper focus on causes and changing configurations of emerging migratory flows. The paper examines autonomous female migration; trafficking in women and children; intraregional migration as alternatives to "illegal" migration to the North; progress and constraints in creating a borderless subregion; and fostering intraregional migration.

Girdler-Brown B. (1998). Eastern and Southern Africa. International Migration, 36 (4), 513-551.

This article addresses the important issue of the relationship between migration and HIV/AIDS in Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

Lydie, N. and Robinson, N. J. (1998). West and Central Africa. International Migration, 36 (4), 469-511.

The research indicates a complex relationship between migration and HIV infection in West and Central Africa, where higher rates of emigration and immigration tend to result in higher rates of HIV infection.

McCrum, M. (1993). Trafficking of African Women: The Realities is Often Worse than Stories. African Women, 7 , 20-24.

Osakue, G. (1998). Exposing Age-old Problems: Trafficking in Women in Nigeria. Women's World, 32, 25-27.

The paper examines the current situation of Nigerian women being trafficked due to globalization. The paper also examines the effect of trafficking on the victims and societies after victims return to their home countries.


Asia General

Bennett, T. (1999). Preventing Trafficking in Women and Children in Asia: Issues and Options. Impact on HIV, 1 (2), 9-13. [Available Online: http://www.fhi.org/en/aids/impact/iohiv/ioh12/ioh122.html ]. (As of 8/25/03, this page is no longer available.) Retrieved on August 13, 2002.

This article discusses issues and options in the prevention of trafficking of women and children in Asia. It examines global prevention strategies, market theories of trafficking and its relation to high prevalence of HIV.

Farley, M., Isin, B., Merab, K., and Ufuk, S. (1998). Prostitution in Five Countries: Violence and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Feminism and Psychology, 8 (4), 405-425.

Mackie, V. (2000). Sexual Violence, Silence, and Human Rights Discourse: The Emergence of the Military Prostitution Issue. In A. Hilsdon, M. Macintyre, V. Mackie and M. Stivens. (Eds.). Human Rights and Gender Politics: Asia-Pacific Perspectives , 37-59. New York: Routledge.

This article addresses the trafficking in women by Japanese military during World War II and its relation to development of feminist works in Korea and Japan.

Shah, N.M. (1997). Violence Against Women Migrant Workers: Issues, Data and Partial Solutions. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, 6 (1), 5-30.

This article suggests a list of indicators to measure violence against domestic workers and entertainment-related workers. Three major types of indicators are; 1) economic, 2) social/psychological and 3) physical/sexual. Evidence from several countries to document instances of violence are reviewed. Major policy issues for the sending and receiving countries are outlined, and some recommendations for addressing such violations are made.

Subramaniam, V. (1999). The Impact of Globalization on Women's Reproductive Health and Rights: A Regional Perspective. Development, 42 (4), 145-149.

This article presents a regional perspective on the effect of globalization on the overall health and well being of women, especially in the light of financial crisis in the Asian region. The paper argues that financial crisis experienced during the late 90's in Asia increased number of women facing unemployment, casualization of labor, poverty, international migration and domestic violence.

Uchida, A. (1998). The Orientalization of Asian Women in America. Women's Studies International Forum, 21 (2), 161-174.

This paper addresses "orientalization" which the author defines as the objectification of Asian women as the "Oriental woman"; the stereotypical image of the exotic other in the discursive practice in the US. The author examines this process in the history of immigration, US military involvement in the Far East and contemporary discourse surrounding Asian American women.

East Asia

Biddulph, S. and Cook, S. (1999). Kidnapping and Selling women and Children: The State's Construction and Response. Violence Against Women, 5 (12), 1437-1468.

This article addresses high prevalence of kidnapping and selling of women in China. The article identifies the ways in which development of the legal regulatory framework has been shaped by official perceptions about the causes of the problem and the methods that may be best adopted to deal with it.

Constable, N. (1996). Jealousy, Charity, and Abuse: Chinese Maids and Foreign Helpers in Hong Kong. Modern China, 22 , 448-479.

This article examines two specific types of Chinese women domestic workers in Hong Kong in comparison with Filipina domestic workers. Author analyzes historical and racial images of domestic workers in Hong Kong. Author particularly examines the problematic images of "foreignness" held by employers and its relation to sexual exploitation.

Ichioka, Y. (1977). Ameyuki-san: Japanese Prostitutes in Nineteenth Century America. Amerasia, 4, 1-21.

This paper examines historical perspectives on trafficking of Japanese women in 19th century to the United States. The paper introduces the voice of the communities which sent and received the women.

South Asia

Bourgeault, R. (1989). Race, Class, and Gender: Colonial Domination of Indian Women. In J. Forts et al. (Eds.). Race, Class and Gender: Bonds and Barriers. Toronto: Jargoned Press.

Brown, H. (1999). Sex crimes and tourism in Nepal. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 11 (23), 107-110.

This paper describes an Internet-based strategy to persuade the Nepalese authorities and travel industry to take effective steps against the abuse of tourists.

Hamal, P. (2000). NGOs working Against Trafficking in Girl Children of Nepal. Population and Development in Nepal, 7, 219-234.

This study examines the strengths and weaknesses of existing nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) involved in the fight against trafficking of girls and child prostitution in Nepal.

Poudel, M. (2000). The Unacceptable Face of Trade. Links , 12.

This article provides information on the efforts of Oxfam in addressing the problem of illegal trafficking of women in Asia. It examines different levels of effort to eliminate the trafficking in women in Nepal.

Poudel, P. and Carryer, J. (2000). Girl-Trafficking: HIV/AIDS, and the Position of Women in Nepal. Gender and Development, 8 (2), 74-79.

The article examines the connections between coercive sex work and HIV infection, and community and government responses to HIV infection among trafficked sex workers. Particular focus is given to trafficking of young Nepalese girls and women.

Southeast Asia

Abrera-Mangahas, M.A. (1998). Violence Against Women Migrant Workers: The Philippine Experience. In B.V. Carino. (Eds.). Filipino Workers on the Move: Trends, Dilemmas and Policy Options, 45-80. Manila: Philippine Migration Research Network.

The paper examines the current historical trends and patterns in the country's overseas labor movements and the policies and programs which have been adopted with the intention of influencing transnational labor flows in ways that would be beneficial to the Philippines and its overseas contract workers. The papers indicates the limits of existing policy measures and points to the necessity of certain structural changes to contain or mitigate the adverse impact of the temporary employment of Filipino female workers abroad.

Bain, I. (1998). South-East Asia. International Migration, 36 (4), 553-585.

This article investigates the issue of HIV and mobile populations in the Mekong Region countries (Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam), with particular regard to cross-border migrants (both legal and undocumented), internal migrants, sex workers, and mobile occupational groups such as truck drivers, fishermen, seafarers and cross-border traders.

Beyrer, C. (2001). Shan women and girls and the sex industry in Southeast Asia; political causes and human rights implications. Social Science and Medicine, 53 (4), 543-550.

This paper examines the long-standing civil conflict in the Shan States of Burma as a contributing cause to the trafficking of ethnic Shan women and girls into the Southeast Asian sex industry and to the subsequent high rates of HIV infection found among these women.

Chang, K. A. and McAllister-Groves, J. (2000). Neither "Saints" nor "Prostitutes": Sexual Discourse in the Filipina Domestic Worker Community in Hong Kong. Women's Studies International Forum, 23 (1), 73-87.

This article examines how international development and migration policies, the condition of domestic work, and Hong Kong popular culture have identified Filipina domestic workers within the sex industry.

Chang, K.A. and Ling, L.H.M (2000). Globalization and its Intimate Other: Filipina Domestic Workers in Hong Kong. In M. Marchand and A. S. Runyan (Eds.). Gender and Global Restructuring. New York: Routledge.

Chutikul, S. (1995, Spring/Summer). Women and Commercial Sex Trade in Thailand. Canadian Women's Studies, 15 (2).

Cunneen, C. and Stubbs, J. (2000). Male Violence, Male Fantasy and The Commodification of Women Through the Internet. International Review of Victimology, 7 (1-3), 5-28.

This article considers the construction of particular forms of masculinity and feminity in the context of a new global market for sex and marital trade via the internet. Violence against Filipino women in Australia is examined as a case study.

Hughes, D.M. (2001). "Welcome to the Rape Camp": Trafficking, Prostitution and the Internet in Cambodia. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 6 (1/2), 1-23. [Available Online: http://www.uri.edu/artsci/wms/hughes/rape_camp.pdf ]. Retrieved on September 12, 2002.

The paper provides an overview of the global sex industries, trafficking in women and children and the Internet sex industry focusing on Southeast Asia. It examines the role of national and international economic policies in allowing global sexual exploitation.

Mensendiek, M. (1996). Women, Migration and Prostitution in Thailand. International Social Work, 40 (2) 163-176.

This article explores the reason behind the migration of women from rural areas of Thailand into the cities, often into prostitution. It links the issues of prostitution to environmental and developmental problems in Thailand. It also discusses social, cultural and economical circumstances specific to Thailand which help to explain the high incidence of prostitution.

Piper, N. (1999). Labor Migration, Trafficking and International Marriage: Female Cross-Border Movements into Japan. Asian Journal of Women's Studies, 5 (2), 69-99.

This paper contributes a viewpoint on labor migration by introducing a gender-specific analysis that goes beyond conventional definitions of labor by including the issue of international marriage market and trafficking in women, set within the broader context of a gendered political economy and a global patriarchal system. The paper argues for the abandonment of the strict distinction between voluntary labor migration and trafficking in women.

Raghu, M. (1997). Sex Trafficking of Thai Women and the United States Asylum Law Response. Georgetown Immigration Law Journal, 12 (1), 145.

Robinson, K. (1996). Of Mail-Order Brides and "Boys Own" Tales: Representations of Asian-Australian Marriages. Femnist Studies, 52 , 53-68.

This paper examines the degree of fantasy which underpins the stereotypes of Asian women in Australian representation of mail-order brides.

Tolentino, R. (1996, Fall). Bodies, Letters, Catalogs: Filipinas in Transnational Space. Social Text, 48 , 49-76.

This article examines the geopolitics of Filipina bodies inscribed in transnational space based on colonial, militarist and capitalist history. It specifically focuses on mail-order phenomenon as a social and political practice.

Van Impe, K. (2000). People for Sale: The Need for a Multidisciplinary Approach towards Human Trafficking. International Migration, 38 (3), 113-191.

The article addresses the question of how to develop appropriate measures to tackle trafficking in women, based on the findings of a study of trafficking between the Philippines and Belgium. It concludes that control measures alone cannot stop the flow of trafficking in women and that a legal approach which relies solely on one type of legislation would be too narrow. An effective strategy must combine and balance punitive measures with protection of human rights, stricter border control and the removal of the root causes of irregular movements.

Vartti, R. (2001). German Matchmaking Websites: Online Trafficking in Women? Sexuality and Culture, 5 (3), 49-76.

This article reports on a study of Germany-based matchmaking agencies operating on the Internet, investigating how they are organized and how they advertise their commodities. The article also highlights features typical for the advertising on this kind of web site, in relation to gender, ethnic, and race. Finally, the issues are raised whether matchmaking agencies are providing equal possibilities to different kinds of people in this kind of transaction, and whether these kinds of services have an impact on gender and ethnic equality.

Watanabe, K. (1995, October). Trafficking in Women's Bodies, Then and Now. Peace and Change, 20 (4), 501-515.

This paper examines links between "peacetime sex worker" and past military "comfort women" by the Japanese military. The author argues that without elimination of sexual violence and commodification of women's bodies, history of violence against women will continue.


Hughes, D.M. (2001, January). The "Natasha" Trade: Transnational Sex Trafficking. National Institute of Justice Journal, 246, 9-15. [Available Online: http://www.uri.edu/artsci/wms/hughes/natasha_nij.pdf ]. Retrieved on September 12, 2002.

This article investigates factors which create an environment accepting trafficking; methods that traffickers use; and the people benefits from trafficking women and girls. Particular attention is given to the case of Ukraine. The author concludes with recommendations for intervention strategies from the Untied States.

Hughes, D.M. (Forthcoming, 2002). Supplying Women for the Sex Industry: Trafficking from Russian Federation. In A. Stulhofer et al. (Eds.). Sexualities in Postcommunism. [Available Online: http://www.uri.edu/artsci/wms/hughes/supplying_women.pdf ]. Retrieved on September 12, 2002.

This chapter investigates the conditions in Russia that facilitate the recruitment and trafficking of women and girls. The author focuses on economic collapse, unemployment, criminalization of state and economy, increased organized crime, violence against women and the promotion of western glamour in the media.

Johnson, D. (1999). Trafficking of Women Into the European Union. New England Journal of International and Comparative Law Annual, 5. [Available Online: http://www.nesl.edu/userfiles/file/nejicl/vol5/johnson.htm ]. Retrieved on August 14, 2002.*As of 11/02/2010 this site is no longer available*

This article examines the trafficking of women from third party countries into the European Union for the purpose of sexual exploitation. It provides an overview of trafficking in the European union, responses to the problem by the EU and member states.

Lazaridis, G. (2001). Trafficking and Prostitution: The Growing Exploitation of Migrant Women in Greece. European Journal of Women's Studies, 8 (1), 67-102.

This article concentrates on the rapid growth of trafficking in women from Eastern and Central Europe who work in the sex industry in Athens. The social processes and mechanisms that produce and reproduce the somatic and social exploitation of female migrants caught in the web of the sex industry are analyzed.

Vocks, J. and Nijboer, J. (2000). The Promised Land: A Study of Trafficking in Women from Central and Eastern Europe to the Netherlands. European Journal of Criminal Policy and Research, 8 (3), 379-388.

This study on trafficking in women from Central and Eastern Europe explores the contextual factors, the characteristics, and the motivation of victims as well as the methods of traffickers. A combination of rational choice theory, strain theory and social control theory are used as the theoretical framework of the research.

Wennerholm, J.C. (2002). Crossing borders and building bridges: the Baltic Region Networking Project. Gender and Development, 10 (1), 10-19.

This article gives an overview of the reasons for, and mechanics of, trafficking. It also highlights the anti-trafficking approaches and activities undertaken by the Swedish NGO Kvinnoforum in partnership with five NGOs in the Baltic Sea and Nordic Region.

Wilson, T.D. (1997, Summer). Trafficking and Prostitution: the Growing Exploitation of Migrant Women from Central and Eastern Europe. International Migration Review, 31 (2), 490.


Bertone, A. M. (2000). Sexual Trafficking in Women: International Political Economy and the Politics of Sex. Gender Issues, 18 (1), 4-22.

This article explores some of the basic facts about trafficking and spotlights it as a truly global phenomenon with its contemporary origins in the international capitalist market system. It views both supply and demand of the trade.

Cao, L. (1987, May). Illegal Traffic in Women: A Civil RICO Proposal. Yale Law Journal, 96 (6), 1297-1324.

Chang, L. (1999). Trafficking in Women. In K. D. Askin and D. M. Koenig. (Eds.). Women and International Human Rights Law. New York: Transnational Publishers Inc.

This book chapter clarifies the issues of trafficking in women. The author examines definitions, factual background, and framework for addressing human rights violations through international human rights law and mechanisms.

Chew, L. (1999). Global Trafficking in Women: Some Issues and Strategies. Women's Studies Quarterly, 27 (1/2), 11-18.

The author provides an overview of trafficking in women and local, national and international strategies to fight against trafficking.

Chuang, J. (1998). Redirecting the Debate Over Trafficking in Women: Definitions, Paradigms, and Contexts. Harvard Human Rights Journal, 1, 65-107.

This article asserts that the narrow portrayal of trafficking denies the complexity of the problem by focusing mainly on women and children recruited for the purpose of prostitution. The article provides an overview of the experiences of women who are trafficked or forced into labor/slavery-like practices.

D'Cunha, J. (1998). Feminist Perspectives on Prostitution and Trafficking for Prostittuion. In S. Kudchedkar. and S. Al-Issa. (Eds.). Violence Against Women, Women Against Violence. Delhi : Pencraft International.

Doezema, J. (2002). Who Gets to Choose? Coercion, Consent, and the UN Trafficking Protocol. Gender and Development, 10 (1), 20-27.

This article explores the difficulties around the notion of consent used to define "trafficking in women." The article looks at the arguments behind the interpretation of "consent" in negotiations, placing them in the historical context of early 20th century campaigns against white slavery. It argues that current notions of "consent" reflect the ambiguity of the Protocol, and are inadequate to serve as the basis for political strategies to protect the rights of sex workers and migrants.

Doezema, J. (2001). Ouch! Western Feminists' "Wounded Attachment" to the "Third World Prostitute." Feminist Review, 67 (1), 16-38.

The central argument of this article is that the "injured body" of the "third world trafficking victim" in international feminist debates around trafficking in women serves as a powerful metaphor for advancing certain feminist interests, which cannot be assumed to be those of third world sex workers themselves. This argument is advanced through a comparison of Victorian feminist campaigns against prostitution in India with contemporary feminist campaigns against trafficking.

Doezema, J. (2000). Loose Women or Lost Women?: The Re-emergence of the Myth of White Slavery in Contemporary Discourse of Trafficking in Women. Gender Issues, 18 (1), 23-50.

This article compares current concerns about trafficking in women with turn of the century discourse about white slavery. Drawing on historical analysis and contemporary representations of sex worker migration with racial perspective, the author argues that the narratives of innocent, virginal victims purveyed in the trafficking women discourse are a modern version of the myth of white slavery, dividing women into innocent victims and guilty whores along the lines of race, sexuality and women's autonomy.

Farrior, S. (1997, Spring). The International Law on Trafficking in Women and Children for Prostitution: Making it Live Up to its Potential. Harvard Human Rights Journal, 10 , 213.

This article provides a survey and analysis of international tools available to fight against trafficking for prostitution, including conventions and treaties of the United Nations and the International Labor Organizations, and United Nations Charter based mechanisms. It also addresses the "soft law" on trafficking, including various Plans of Action adopted by the United Nations bodies, concludes by recommending those mechanisms which activists can use most effectively in ending trafficking for prostitution.

Fetherson, A. B. (1995). U.N. Peacekeepers and Cultures of Violence. Cultural Survival Quarterly, 19 (1), 19-23.

The author examines the impact of peacekeeping force on the lives of people living in war zones while addressing the interrelated issues of conflict management and culture of violence in war zones. The author analyzes the relationship between influx of peacekeeping force and increase in sexual exploitation of trafficked women.

Giobbe, E. (1993). An Analysis of Individual, Institutional, and Cultural Pimping. Michigan Journal of Gender & Law, 1 , 33-57.

Gushulak B.D. and MacPherson D.W. (2000). Health Issues Associated with the Smuggling and Trafficking of Migrants. Journal of Immigrant Health, 2 (2), 67-78.

This article develops a framework to analyze the impact of human trafficking on health within the context of migrant health and the destination population's health. The author examines the global consideration of human smuggling and the individual and social impact throughout the paper.

Helton, A.C. and Jacobs, E. (2000, May). Combating Human Smuggling by Enlisting the Victims. Migration World Magazine, 28 (4), 12.

This paper offers a law enforcement approach designed to benefit from the interests of the individual victims and found on notion of dignity. It proposes broad adjustment of immigration status remedy as an incentive for victims to come forward and testify against traffickers and criminal syndicates.

Hughes, D.M. (2000, Spring). The Internet and Sex Industries: Partners in Globalizing Sexual Exploitation. IEEE Technology and Society Magazine, 35-42.

This article examines how financial and technological development, the sex industry, and the internet industry have become partners in the global sexual exploitation of women and children.

Hughes, D.M. (2002). Use of New Communications and Information Technologies for Exploitation of Women and Children. Hasting Women's Law Journal, 13 (1), 129-148. [Available Online: http://www.uri.edu/artsci/wms/hughes/new_tech.pdf ]. Retrieved on September 12, 2002.

The author argues that new communications and information technologies facilitate the trafficking of women and children for sexual exploitation nationally and globally. The paper examines the newest and most common technology and how they are used for trafficking in women and children.

Kempadoo, K. (2001). Women of Color and the Global Sex Trade: Transnational Feminist Perspectives. Meridians: Feminism, Race, Transnationalism, 1 (2), 28-51.

Miller, J. and Jayasundara, D. (2001). Prostitution, the Sex Industry, and Sex Tourism. In C. Rezetti, J. Edleson, and R. K. Bergen. (Eds.). Sourcebook on Violence Against Women, 459-480. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

This book chapter provides an overview of both global and local trafficking in women for commercial sexual exploitation, focusing on the impact of legal responses and organizational features in shaping women's experience. The authors highlight particular importance in its relation to violence.

Nelson, V. (1993). Prostitution: Where Racism and Sexism Intersect. Michigan Journal of Gender and Law, 1 , 81-89.

Pettman, J.J. (1997, March). Body Politics: International Sex Tourism. Third World Quarterly, 18 (1), 93-108.

This article explores gender relationships in international relations, within particular focus on sex tourism. The issue, author investigates various dichotomous relationsships such as sex and power, men and women, first and third worlds, sexual relations across state, national, and racialized and culturalized boundaries.

Pickup, F. (1998). More Words But No Action?: Forced Migration and Trafficking of Women. Gender and Development, 6 (1), 44-51.

This article gives an overview of two main arguments about trafficking of women; 1) trafficking as a valid job option or 2) trafficking as a form of violence against women.

Raymond, J. (1996). Prostitution: The Debate between Human Rights and Violence. Journal of International Institute , 13 & 23.

Raymond, J. (1998). Prostitution as Violence Against Women: NGO Stonewalling in Beijing and Elsewhere. Women's Studies International Forum, 21 (1), 1-9.

This article examines the efforts of various NGOs to dinstinguish between the practice of sexual exploitation and the consequences of the harm done to women in prostitution into a consenting act.

Taylor, I. and Jamieson, R. (1999). Sex trafficking and the mainstream of market culture. Crime, Law and Social Change, 32 (3), 257-278.

This paper (a) attempts to locate the demand for trafficked women in a broader analysis of changes in the political economy of "developed" studies and (b) more specifically situates the trafficking in women in relation to the new-found centrality of sex in the mainstream of popular culture.

Toepfer, S. and Wells, B.S. (1994). The Worldwide Market for Sex: A Review of International and Regional Legal Prohibitions Regarding Trafficking in Women. Michigan Journal of Gender & Law , 83-128.

Tzvetkova, M. (2002). NGO Responses to Trafficking in Women. Gender and Development, 10 (1), 60-68.

This article provides an overview of NGO activity against trafficking in women for sexual exploitation. The article explores why NGOs are well-placed to work with women victims of trafficking, and their responses to the growing phenomenon in countries of origin and destination. It presents a regional overview of NGO initiatives, and concludes by discussing some of the main obstacles faced by NGOs in combating trafficking for sexual exploitation, and women's and children's vulnerability to slavery-like practices.

United States Agency for International Development. (1999). Women as chattel: The Emerging Global Market in Trafficking. Gender Matters Quarterly, 1 , 1-8.

This article addresses the issue of human trafficking, particularly examining the legal framework of national and international efforts to combat human trafficking.

Venetis, P. (1997). International Sexual Slavery. Women's Rights Law Reporter, 18 (3), 268-270.

Von Struensee, S. (2000). Globalized, Wired, Sex Trafficking in Women and Children. Murdoch University Electronic Journal of Law, 7(2). [Available Online at http://www.murdoch.edu.au/elaw/issues/v7n2/struensee72.html] Retrieved August 20, 2004.

This article addresses the issue of sex trafficking in women and children in general and also specifically discusses harmful practice of internet sex trafficking

Von Struensee, S. (2000). Sex Trafficking: A Plea for Action. European Law Journal, 6(4), 379-407.

This article defines as sex trafficking as a violence against women and explores legal obligations to eliminate the practice

Middle East

Delong, L. (2000). Poor Protection for Victims of the Sex Trade. Third World Network . [Available Online: http://www.twnside.org.sg/title/2121.htm ]. Retrieved on August 13, 2002.

This article is based on a study by Amnesty International which examines how Israel is failing to protect women who have been trafficked into the country for the purpose of prostitution.

North America

Angeles-Forster, L. (1995). Between the Devil and the Deep Sea: The Lingering Problem of Trafficking in Women. Network of Saskatchewan Women, 10 (1), 1-4.

Brock, D., Gilles, K., Oliver, C. and Sutdhibhaslip, M. (2000). Migrant Sex Work: A Roundtable Analysis. Canadian Woman Studies, 20 (2), 84-91.

Hynes, H.P. and Raymond, J.G. (2002). Put in Harm's Way: The Neglected Health Consequences of Sex Trafficking in the United States. In J. Silliman and A. Bhattacharjee. Policing the National Body: Sex, Race and Criminalization, 197-229. Cambridge: Southend Press. [Available Online: http://action.web.ca/home/catw/readingroom.shtml?sh_itm=16ccc34b56c4fe955ac694bd32cbfeed ]. Retrieved on August 5, 2002.

This book chapter provides an overview of trafficking, definition, trafficking as a global phenomenon and structure of trafficking. Then the authors explored theoretical health consequences of women trafficked into sexual exploitation and merged their interview results. In addition, the authors provide recommendations for national and local governments.

South America

Aziz, V.Y. (1997). Trafficking in Women and Forced Labor. In Latin American and Caribbean Women's Health Network. Work and Health, Women at Risk: Revealing the Hidden Health Burden of Women Workers, 107-111. Santiago: Author.

This article presents responses from E. Escobar to an interview about women in sex trade conducted at the 8th International Women and Health Meeting in 1997. This article also summarizes the discussions and conclusions of the Latin American and Caribbean Regional Meeting on Trafficking in Women and Forced Labor in Prostitution, Domestic Work, and Marriage held in 1996.



Asia General

Sturdevant, S.P. and Stolzfus, B. (1992). Let the Good Times Roll: Prostitution and the US Military in Asia. New York: The New Press.

East Asia

Moon, K. (1997). Sex Among Allies: Military Prostitution in US-Korean Relations. New York: Columbia University Press.

South Asia

Annamanthodo, P. (1992). Red Light Traffic: The Trade in Nepali Girls. Kathmandu: ABC/Nepal.

This book presents trafficking of girls in Nepal in relation to AIDS. It examines multiple layers of social, economical, legal and educational system and their linkages that create trafficking. It also illustrates the levels of official complicity in the trade and failure of government to address the problem.

O'Dea, P. (1993). Gender Exploitation and Violence: The Market in Women, Girls and Sex in Nepal. Geneva: UNICEF.

This book provides an overview of market approach to trafficking in women; discussing supply and the role of sex workers and demands from Nepali and Indian clients. It also discusses the various levels on which organizations and profits are controlled.

Pradhan, G. (1997). Back Home from Brothels: A Case Study of the Victims of Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Trafficking Across Nepal-India Border. Katmandu: Child Workers in Nepal Concerned Center.

This book presents voices of former victims of cross-border trafficking. It vividly provides structural analysis of the system which traps women and girls into the trafficking.

Southeast Asia

Bales, K. (1999). Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy. Berkeley:University of California Press.

The book provides an overview of different types of slavery including sexual slavery in Thailand. The author analyzes the roles of national and global economic system.

Bishop, R. and Robinson, L. (1998). Night Market: Sexual Cultures and the Thai Economic Miracle. New York: Routledge.

This book traces historical, cultural, material and textual "traditions" that have combined to establish sex tourism as an integral part of developing Thai economy. It explores international sex tourism from the perspectives of economic development planning, forced labor market choices and international sexual alienation.

Erpelo, M. and Jose, D. (Eds.). (1998). Halfway Through the Circle: The Lives of Eight Filipino Women Survivors of Prostitution and Trafficking. Quezon City, Philippines: WEDPRO.

Eviota, E. U. (1992). The Political Economy of Gender: Women and the Sexual Division of Labor in the Philippines. London: Zedbooks.

The book examines connections between sexual division of labor across diverse aspects of social life: within town and country, family and state, trade, and technology through history. Particular attention is given to Filipina.

Hayzer, N., Lycklama, G. and Weerakoon, N. (Eds.). (1994). The Trade in Domestic Workers: Causes, Mechanisms and Consequences of International Migration. London: Zedbooks.

This book provides an overview of both legal and illegal female migrants within Asia and Gulf countries. The book addresses the issue of economic disparity and its relation to unequal treatment of migrants; inadequacy of legal protection; labor legislation; effects of migration to family left at home; and re-integration process of the women.

Lim, L. L. (1998). The Sex Sector: The Economic and Social Bases of Prostitution in Southeast Asia. Geneva: International Labor Organization.

This book examines the multiple and complex economic issues surrounding work in the sex business and the closely related issues of basic human rights, employment, working conditions, gender discrimination and exploitation. Using case studies from Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand, the book shows how the sex sector has become a highly organized, sophisticated and diversified mechanism with powerful vested interests and tight links to the national and international economy, making it hard for governments to set policy.

Phizacklea, A. (Eds.). (1983). One Way Ticket: Migration and Female Labor. London: Routledge.

Truong, T.D. (1990). Sex, Money and Morality: Prostitution and Tourism in Southeast Asia. London: Zedbooks.

This book explores how the sexual division of labor incorporates the role of sexual labor. The author also examines how different states become integrated in the international division of labor through the provision of leisure service through women's sexual labor.


Alexander, P. and Frederique D. (Eds.). (1987). Sex Work: Writings by Women in the Sex Industry. Pittsburgh: Cleis Press.

This book addresses the rights of women who engage in sex work from a global perspective, expanding upon American experiences to those that include women who have been fighting for their sexual rights around the world. This book is an anthology, a collaborative work of women who have worked in the sex industry, and activists who have organized on their behalf.

Barry, K. (1979). Female Sexual Slavery. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

The author uncovers the silence around women who were forced into prostitution and trafficked from one country to another and indicates lack of national and international protection and accountability for the victims of sexual slaves.

Barry, K. (1995). The Prostitution of Sexuality. New York: New York University Press.

The author presents the theories and analysis that explore the effects of prostitution on women and the implication for women's human rights. It includes local, regional and international strategies to confront patriarchy.

D'Cunha, J. (1991). The legalization of Prostitution: A Sociological Inquiry into the Laws Relating to Prostitution in India and the West. Bangalore: Wordmakers.

This book critically examines how the legalization of prostitution has worked in several countries and lays facts of the prostituted women's exploitation and suffering in patriarchal society. The author investigates whether legalization would benefit women caught in the trap and makes recommendations for legal reform.

Hughes, D.M. and Roche, C.M. (Eds.). (1999). Making Harm Visible: Global Sexual Exploitation of Women and Girls Speaking Out and Providing Services. The Coalition Against Trafficking in Women. [Available Online: http://www.uri.edu/artsci/wms/hughes/mhvtoc.htm ]. Retrieved on September 12, 2002.

This book is a collection of writings from women who are working to make the harm of sexual exploitation visible around the world. The book describes the real situation of exploited women, survival stories, experiences of working with the victims, country reports, international efforts to intervene the violence and the lack of such systems.

Kempadoo, K. and Doezema, J. (Eds.). (1998). Global Sex Workers: Rights, Resistance and Redefinition. New York: Routledge.

This global anthology raises questions about the sex workers in developing world: Are sex workers in non-western/third world countries really organizing for their rights or are reports of such organizing singular incidents? Are women serious about staying in the sex industry in the developing world or anxious to have prostitution abolished? If there really are movements then what is the response to these initiatives from the rest of the women's movement? The book provides the voices of women and men who engage in the sex work, not only from the North, but from the Third World countries.

Kyle, D. and Koslowski, R. (Eds.). (2001). Global Human Smuggling: Comparative Perspectives. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

This book explores the historical context, social organizations and political ramifications of human smuggling across the border as a global phenomenon, focusing on sending countries. The book concludes failure of destination states to enforce policies that cut demand for smuggled labor is the impediment to eliminating trafficking.

Raymond, J., D'Cunha, J., Dzuhayatin, S.R., Hynes, H.P., Rodrizuez, Z.R. and Santos, A. (2002). A Comparative Study of Women Trafficked in the Migration Process: Patterns, Profiles and Health Consequences of Sexual Exploitation in Five Countries (Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, Venezuela and the United States. [Available Online: http://action.web.ca/home/catw/attach/CATW%20Comparative%20Study%202002.pdf ]. Retrieved July 31, 2002.

This study describes the patterns, profiles and health consequences of sexual exploitation in five countries: Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, Venezuela and the United States.

Skrobanek, S. B. S. and Jantateroo, C. (1997). The Traffic in Women: Human Realities of the International Sex Trade. New York: Zed Books Ltd.

Williams, P. (Eds.). (1999). Illegal Immigration and Commercial Sex: The New Slave Trade. London: Frank Cass Publishers.

This book examines trafficking of women from an international viewpoint. It includes situations of receiving countries, structure of human smuggling organizations and characteristics of sending countries. In addition, the authors illustrate national and international legal instruments to combat trafficking in women and children.

Legal Instruments and Resolutions

Convention Concerning Forced or Compulsory Labor, the International Labor Organization. (1957). [Available Online: http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/instree/n0ilo29.htm ]. Retrieved on August 12, 2002.

Convention Concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor, the International Labor Organization. (1999). [Available Online: http://www.un-documents.net/c182.htm ]. Retrieved on August 7, 2002.

Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others, the United Nations. (1949). [Available Online: http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/refworld/rwmain?page=search&docid=3ae6b38e23 ]. Retrieved on August 7, 2002.

Declaration on the Fight Against Trafficking in Persons, Economic Community of West African States. (2001). [Available Online: http://www.undcp.org/adhoc/crime/trafficking/Declarationr_CEDEAO.pdf (Editor's Note: As of 1/3/2003, this link is no longer active.) Retrieved on August 12, 2002.

Optional Protocols to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict and on the Sale of the Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography., the United Nations. (2000). [Available Online: http://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=IV-11-c&chapter=4&lang=en ]. Retrieved on October 6, 2011.

Proposal for a Council Directive on the Short-term Residence Permit Issued to Victims of Action to Facilitate Illegal Immigration or Trafficking in Human Beings who Cooperate with the Competent Authorities, European Commission on Refugees and Exiles. (2002). [Available Online: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:52002PC0071:EN:HTML Retrieved on August 7, 2002.

Protection and Assistance for the Victims of Trafficking: Interim Rule, 28 CFR Part 1100 U.S. Department of Justice. (July, 2001).

Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, Supplementing the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, the United Nations. (2000). [Available Online: http://www.uncjin.org/Documents/Conventions/dcatoc/final_documents_2/convention_%20traff_eng.pdf ]. Retrieved on August 7, 2002.

SAARC Convention on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Women and Children for Prostitution, South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation. (2002). [Available Online: http://action.web.ca/home/catw/readingroom.shtml?x=16853&AA_EX_Session=6df2003dc0eaa8a3600951ada3f84bf4 ]. Retrieved on August 7, 2002.

Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, 3244 H.R. (2000).

Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000, US Department of Justice. [Available Online: http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/10492.pdf ]. Retrieved on August 7, 2002.



Asia General

Brownlee, P. and Mitchell, C. (1997). Migration Issues in Asia-Pacific. Working Paper No. 1. Australia: Asian Pacific Migration Research Network. [Available Online: http://www.unesco.org/most/apmrnwp1.htm ]. Retrieved on August 12, 2002.

This report contains eleven papers addressing issues concerning migration and ethnocultural diversity; major policy issues; the state of research on these themes; progress in establishing national research networks to link up with the APMRN; key research themes for the next five years; and ideas on international research projects and priorities.

Coalition Against Trafficking in Women-Asia Pacific (CATW-AP). (1996). Trafficking in Women and Prostitution in the Asia Pacific. Manila: Author.

This reports explores the global structure of trafficking in women and the reasons some women stay in the situation. The author includes legal sanctions and the health consequences of trafficking. It also addresses the relationship between trafficking in women and military prostitution, natural disasters and political instability of sending countries.

Global Survival Network. (1997). Crime and Servitude: An Expose of Trafficking in Women for Prostitution from the Newly Independent States. Washington DC: Author. Retrieved on August 12, 2002.

This report was prepared for distribution at an international conference in Moscow on "The Trafficking of NIS Women Abroad. Using both conventional and unconventional methodology, the paper reveals the situation of trafficking in women from the Newly Independent States.

Hogeland, C. and Rose, K. (1990). Dreams Lost, Dreams Found: Undocumented Women in the Land of Opportunity. A Survey Research Project of Chinese, Filipina and Latina Undocumented Women. San Francisco: Coalition for Immigrant and Refugee Rights Services.

Ireland, K. (1993). Wish You Weren't Here: The Sexual Exploitation of Children and the Connection with Tourism and International Travel. London: Save the Children.

This report analyzes child sexual exploitation by foreigners and describes the nature of child sexual abuse in Thailand, Sri Lanka and the Philippines. The focus is on the links with foreign travel and tourism. The report examines trafficking in children across national borders and within the national borders, from rural to urban areas. Intervention strategies are also included.

South Asia

Human Rights Watch. (2000). Rape for Profit: Trafficking of Nepali Girls and Women to India's Brothels. New York: Author. [Available Online: http://www.hrw.org/reports/1995/India.htm" ]. Retrieved on August 5, 2002.

This report is based on interviews conducted with trafficking victims, most of them Nepali women in their twenties who were trafficked to India as teenagers or older women in Bombay who were still involved in the industry. The interviews are supplemented with case material and interview transcripts provided by social workers, human rights activists and representatives of other nongovernmental organizations who work on trafficking and AIDS-related issues, and interviews with government officials and police officers in Nepal and India between March and September 1994. The authors conclude that few governments have recognized trafficking as a government responsibility, preferring to view the flesh trade as an unfortunate social evil with its roots in poverty.

Southeast Asia

Ateneo de Manila University and the Women's Education, Development, Productivity and Research Organization (WEDPRO). (1999). The Phillipine-Belgian Pilot Project against Trafficking in Women. Makati City, Philippines: Author.

Caouette, T. M. (1998). Needs Assessment on Cross-Border Trafficking in Women and Children: The Mekong Sub-Region. Bangkok: the United Nations Working Group on Trafficking in the Mekong Sub-Region.

The study identifies the key interventions, prevention, protection, reintegration, research and advocacy initiated by government, non-government and international agencies to fight against the trafficking of women and children in the Mekong sub-region.

Catholic Institute for International Relations. (1987). The Labour Trade, Filipino Migrant Workers Around the World. Manila: Friends of Filipino Migrant Workers Inc (KAIBIGAN) and the National Secretariat for Social Action.

Center for the Protection of Children's Rights. (1991). The Trafficking of Children for Prostitution in Thailand. The Northern Connection: Cutting the Supply Lines. Bangkok: Author.

This report describes the Center's attempts to rescue sexually exploited children in Thailand.

Human Rights Watch. (2000). Owed Justice: Thai Women Trafficked into Debt Bondage in Japan . New York: Author. [Available Online: http://www.hrw.org/reports/2000/japan/ ]. Retrieved on August 5, 2002.

This report is based on interviews conducted in Thailand and Japan over a six year period from 1994 to 1999, during which the authors documented serious abuses in the course of trafficked women's recruitment, travel, job placement, and subsequent employment. The interviews in 1999 reveal a clear continuation of the abuses the authors first documented in 1994; indicating that, despite the increased awareness demonstrated by Japanese and Thai officials regarding the abuses trafficked women suffer, these governments have failed as yet to take adequate steps to respond effectively to the problem.

Human Rights Watch (Asia Watch Women's Human Rights Project). (1993). A Modern Form of Slavery: Trafficking of Burmese Women and Girls into Brothels in Thailand. New York: Author. [Available Online: http://www.hrw.org/reports/1993/thailand/ ]. Retrieved on August 5, 2002.

This report documents violence, rape, intimidation and virtual imprisonment aggravated by women and girls' illegal immigration status and the illegality of the brothels in which they work. It also documents involvement of officials in the traffic at the border, transportation, organization and "protection."

Kanlungan Center Foundation, Inc. (1998). The Impact of Government Policies and Past Programs on the Reintegration Process of Women Migrant Workers who Survived Violence Abroad. Manila: Author.

South Australian Department of Community Welfare. (1998). Report of the Filipina-Australian Marriages and Domestic Violence Working Party. Adelaide: South Australian Department of Community Welfare.


Budapest Group. (1999, June). The Relationship between Organized Crime and Trafficking in Aliens. Austria: International Centre for Migration Policy Development.

Foundation of Women's Forum/Stiftelsen Kvinnoforum. (1998). Trafficking in Women for the Purpose of Sexual Exploitation: Mapping the Situations and Existing Organisations Working in Belarus, Russia, the Baltic and the Nordic States.

This report focuses on strategies employed for preventive and rehabilitative work for trafficking in women in Belarus, Russia, the Baltic and the Nordic countries.

Global Survival Network. (1999). Trapped: Human Trafficking for Forced Labor in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (a U.S. Territory). Washington DC: Author. [Available Online: http://www.globalsurvival.net/pdf/9905cnmi.pdf ]. Retrieved on August 12, 2002.

This report details the plight of some 40,000 "guest workers" suffering in the U.S. Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and the foreign-based companies that take advantage of loopholes in U.S. law to exploit them.

International Organization for Migration. (2002). Research Report on Third Country National Trafficking Victims in Albania: Inter-Agency Referral System (IARS) Project for Return and Reintegration Assistance to Victims of Trafficking. Geneva: Author. Retrieved on August 5, 2002.

This report reviews 74 cases of victims of trafficking assisted in 2001 in institutions, police and civic societies in Albania. The authors found that most of the victims were from Moldova and Romania via Yugoslavia. The report explores the role of traffickers in Albania as well as recommendations targeting international communities to ensure breaking the chains of trafficking and complying with international standards to end trafficking.

Kelly, L. and Regan, L. (2000). Stopping Traffic: Exploring the Extent of, and Responses to, Trafficking in Women for Sexual Exploitation in the UK. London: Home Office Policing and Reducing Crime Unit.

This paper outlines an exploratory study, focusing on the nature and extent of trafficking in women for the purpose of sexual exploitation in the UK. The research is primarily based on a survey of police forces, placing this within the wider context of national and international law and policy.

Kvinnoforum. (2002). A Resource Book for Working Against Trafficking in Women and Girls Baltic Sea Region. Stockholm: Author. [Available Online: http://www.childtrafficking.com/Docs/kvinnoforum_2002__ressource.pdf ]. Retrieved on August 12, 2002.

The book is aimed as a tool for different actors working against trafficking in and around the Baltic Sea Area. The book is a result of cooperation between sex different organizations working against trafficking.

McDonald, L., Moore, B. and Timoshkina, N. (2000). Migrant Sex Workers from Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union: The Canadian Case. Toronto: Center for Applied Social Research. [Available Online: http://www.childtrafficking.org/pdf/user/university_toronto_migrant_sexworkers_from_eastern_europe_.pdf ]. Retrieved on August 12, 2002.

This study explored trafficking in women from Central and Eastern Europe to Canada. It examined under what conditions the Slavic women came to Canada, their working conditions, and how they adapted to the sex trade.

Minnesota Advocates for Human Rights. (2000). Trafficking in Women: Moldova and Ukraine. Minneapolis: Author. [Available Online: http://www.theadvocatesforhumanrights.org/sites/608a3887-dd53-4796-8904-997a0131ca54/uploads/traffickingreport.pdf ]. Retrieved on August 13, 2002.

This report documents the trafficking of women for the commercial sex industry as a human rights violation in both Moldova and Ukraine. The report also analyzes the mechanisms of trafficking in both countries and the NGO and governmental response to the problem, including information on Moldovan and Ukrainian law

Morrison, J. (2000). The Trafficking and Smuggling of Refugees: The End Game in European Asylum Policy? [Available Online: http://www.unhcr.org/research/RESEARCH/3af66c9b4.pdf ]. Retrieved on August 12, 2002.

This report analyzes the response of European governments to the increasing problems of human trafficking and smuggling, and concludes that much of existing policy-making is part of the problem and not the solution.

United Nations Children's Fund. (2002). Trafficking in Human Beings in Southeastern Europe: Current Situation and Responses to Trafficking in Human Beings in Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Moldova and Romania. [Available Online: http://www.unicef.org/ceecis/Trafficking.Report.2005.pdf ]. Retrieved on August 7, 2002.

This report reviews situations and responses to trafficking in human beings in southeastern Europe. The report pinpoints obstacles to the provision of protection and support for women and children.


Brussa, L. (1991). Survey on Prostitution, Migration and Traffic in Women: History and Current Situation. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.

This paper examines both historical frameworks of regulations governing prostitution and the historical and ideological evolution of policies on prostitution. Following the historical analysis, author analyzes current United Nations Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and for the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others. The author examines the structure and methodology of organized prostitution and underlying factors which give rise to prostitution on an international scale.

Global Alliance Against Trafficking in Women. (1999). Human Rights Standard for the Treatment of Trafficked Persons. [Available Online: http://www.inet.co.th/org/gaatw/SolidarityAction/SMR99.htm]. Retrieved August 7, 2002.

These standards are drawn from international human rights instruments and formally-recognized international legal norms. The Standards protect the rights of trafficked persons by providing them with an effective legal remedy, legal protection, non-discriminatory treatment, and restitution, compensation and recovery.

Immigration and Naturalization Service. (2001). International Matchmaking Organizations: A Report to Congress. [Available Online: http://www.uscis.gov/portal/site/uscis/menuitem.5af9bb95919f35e66f614176543f6d1a/?vgnextoid=9ba5d0676988d010VgnVCM10000048f3d6a1RCRD&vgnextchannel=2c039c7755cb9010VgnVCM10000045f3d6a1RCRD ]. Retrieved on August 12, 2002.

This report is in response to the Congressional request under Section 652 of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996. The report includes a review of INS records for quantitative data as to the number of marriages facilitated by international matchmaking businesses as well as evidence of domestic violence or marriage fraud in the petitionable relationships which result between U.S. citizens (USCs) or lawful permanent residents (LPRs) and the foreign-born women recruited by these companies.

International Organization for Migration. (1996). Trafficking in Women to Italy for Sexual Exploitation. Geneva: Author. Retrieved on August 7, 2002.

This exploratory study describes how women are trafficked to Italy for sexual exploitation. This is the first study to examine specific issues of trafficking Nigerian and Albanian women to Italy. The study is based on interviews with 50 women who were identified as victims of trafficking in women.

Miko, F. T. (2000). Trafficking in Women and Children: The US and International Response. (Congressional Research Service Report 98-649 C).

Washington DC: United States Department of State. [Available Online: http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/9107.pdf ]. Retrieved on August 7, 2002.

This report provides information on the scope and causes of the trafficking in humans world-wide, the response of the United States and the international community, and recent congressional actions aimed at stemming trafficking. The report summarizes key issues involved in the debate over how to best address the problem.

Raymond, J. (2001). The ILO Report on Prostitution: Edging into the Labor Sector. Copenhagen: International Abolitionist Federation.

Richard, A. O. (1999). International Trafficking in Women to the United States: A Contemporary Manifestation of Slavery and Organized Crime. Washington DC: Center for the Study of Intelligence. Retrieved on August 7, 2002.

This federal report discusses the rapid rise in human trafficking, especially female trafficking in the United States. The report also addresses the issues of child labor, illegal adoptions and mail order brides and explains laws to prohibit such practice.

United Nations Commission on Human Rights. (1999). Report of the Secretary-General on Violence Against Women Migrant Workers. Geneva: Author. [Available Online: http://www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/Testframe/0553f2c33246dd0b802568860052d710?Opendocument ]. Retrieved on August 13, 2002.

This report provides an overview of violence against women migrant workers in Canada, Russia, Japan and Sudan. The report also gives strategies taken by various organizations to intervene such violence.

United States Department of Justice. (2002). Trafficking in Persons: A Guide for Non-Governmental Organizations. Washington DC: Author. [Available Online: http://www.child-trafficking.info/upload/links/TRAFFICKING%20IN%20PERSONS--A%20GUIDE%20FOR%20NON-GOVERNMENTAL%20ORGANIZATIONS.htm ]. Retrieved on August 7, 2002.

This report from the U.S. Department of Justice is intended for nongovernmental organizations, such as service providers and other community-based organizations to use as a reference guide to help trafficking victims.

United States Department of State. (2001). Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000: Trafficking in Persons Report. Washington DC: Author. [Available Online: http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/4107.pdf ]. Retrieved on August 7, 2002.

This report was drafted as a requirement of the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000. They have classified countries according to the levels of compliances to the existing law in their country with regards to the trafficking.

Wijers, M. and Lin, L.C. (1997). Trafficking in Women: Forced Labor and Slavery-like Practices in Marriage, Domestic Labor and Prostitution. Strecht: STV.

This reports explores the trafficking in women from different perspectives of mail-brides, domestic workers and sexual exploitation. The report also compares, clarifies and suggests methods and strategies to work aimed at ensuring the rights of women who have become subjected to trafficking.

North America

Hofstede Committee. (1999). Juvenile Prostitution in Minnesota. [Available Online: http://www.hawaii.edu/hivandaids/Juvenile%20Prostitution%20in%20Minnesota.pdf ]. Retrieved on July 30, 2002.

This report provides an overview of dangers of juvenile prostitution, the sex industry in Minnesota, and the efforts to end juvenile prostitution. This report also recommends tougher penalties for people who exploit children and teenagers.